What is job analysis? Explain the methods of job analysis ?
Job analysis is the process of determining and reporting pertinent information relating to the nature of a specific job. It is the determination of the tasks that comprise the job and the skills, knowledge, abilities, and responsibilities required of the holder for successful job performance.
Job Analysis Methods
An organization uses different methods to collect information and conduct job analysis.i
In this method, the observer observes a worker or a group of workers doing a job. He lists all the duties performed by the worker and the qualities required to perform those duties.
It is a direct method. Direct exposure to jobs can provide a richer and deeper understanding of job requirements than workers’ descriptions of what they do.
Observations alone may reveal little useful information if the work in question is primarily mental.
With this approach, an analyst does the job understudy to get firsthand exposure to what it demands.
With this method, there is exposure to actual job tasks and the jobs’ physical, environmental, and social demands. It is suitable for jobs that can be learned relatively quickly.
Its main limitation is that the employee becomes conscious when the employee’s work is observed. This method is inappropriate for jobs that require extensive training or are hazardous.
Under this method, a manager can determine the content and pace of a typical workday through a statistical sampling of certain actions rather than through continuous observation and timing of all actions.
A manager or job analyst visits each job site and talks with employees performing each job. A standardized interview form is used most often to record the information.
Frequently, both the employee and the employee’s supervisor must be interviewed to understand the job completely. In some cases, a group of experts conducts the interview.
They ask questions about the job, skill levels, and difficulty levels.
They ask questions and collect information, and based on this information, job analysis is prepared.
This method can provide information about standard and non-standard activities and physical and mental work.
In short, the worker can provide the analyst with information that might not be available from any other source. Its main limitation is that workers may be suspicious of interviewers and their motives.; interviewers may ask ambiguous questions.
Thus, the distortion of information is a real possibility.i
A survey instrument is developed and given to employees and managers to complete.
The main advantage of this method is that information on many jobs can be collected inexpensively in a relatively short time. This method is usually cheaper and quicker to administer than other methods.
Questionnaires can be completed off the job, thus avoiding lost productive time. Its main limitation is that it is time consuming and expensive to develop.
The rapport between analyst and respondent is impossible unless the analyst is present to explain and clarify misunderstandings.
Such an impersonal approach may have adverse effects on respondent cooperation and motivation.
Critical incident method
In this method, the employee is asked to write one or more critical incident that has taken place on the job.
The incident will explain the problem, how it is handled, the qualities required, difficulty levels, etc. The critical incident method gives an idea about the job and its importance.
A critical means important, and an incident means anything which takes place on the job. This method focuses directly on what people do in their jobs, and thus, it provides insight into job dynamics.
It may be difficult to develop a profile of average job behavior as this method describes particularly effective or ineffective behavior.
Under this method, companies can ask employees to maintain log records or daily diaries, and job analysis can be done based on information collected from the record.
A log record is a book in which employee records /writes all the activities performed by him on the job.
The records are extensive and exhausted and provide a fair idea about the duties and responsibilities in any job.
In this method, the worker does the work himself, and the idea of the skill required, the difficulty level of the job, and the efforts required can be known easily.