What is capital structure? Describe factors that determine the capital structure.
Capital structure is the particular combination of debt and equity used by a company to finance its overall operations and growth. Equity capital arises from ownership shares in a company and claims to its future cash flows and profits. Debt comes in the form of bond issues or loans, while equity may come in the form of common stock, preferred stock, or retained earnings. Short-term debt is also considered to be part of the capital structure.
Importance of Capital Structure
Capital structure is vital for a firm as it determines the overall stability of a firm. Here are some of the other factors that highlight the importance of capital structure
- A firm having a sound capital structure has a higher chance of increasing the market price of the shares and securities that it possesses. It will lead to a higher valuation in the market.
- A good capital structure ensures that the available funds are used effectively. It prevents over or under capitalisation.
- It helps the company in increasing its profits in the form of higher returns to stakeholders.
- A proper capital structure helps in maximising shareholder’s capital while minimising the overall cost of the capital.
- A good capital structure provides firms with the flexibility of increasing or decreasing the debt capital as per the situation.
Factors Determining Capital Structure
Following are the factors that play an important role in determining the capital structure:
- Costs of capital: It is the cost that is incurred in raising capital from different fund sources. A firm or a business should generate sufficient revenue so that the cost of capital can be met and growth can be financed.
- Degree of Control: The equity shareholders have more rights in a company than the preference shareholders or the debenture shareholders. The capital structure of a firm will be determined by the type of shareholders and the limit of their voting rights.
- Trading on Equity: For a firm which uses more equity as a source of finance to borrow new funds to increase returns. Trading on equity is said to occur when the rate of return on total capital is more than the rate of interest paid on debentures or rate of interest on the new debt borrowed.
- Government Policies: The capital structure is also impacted by the rules and policies set by the government. Changes in monetary and fiscal policies result in bringing about changes in capital structure decisions.