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MPC 03 : COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY, LEARNING AND MEMORY
COURSE CODE: MPC 03 2022
Note: This TMA consists of ten questions, out of which you have to attempt any five. The question carries 20 marks each and should be answered in about 500 words. Send your TMA to the Coordinator of your Study Centre.
NOTE: All questions are compulsory.
SECTION – A
Answer the following questions in 1000 words each.
Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 marks
LIFE SPAN PSYCHOLOGY (MPC 003)
TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT (TMA)
Course Code: MPC 003 Assignment Code: MPC 003/ASST/TMA/2021-22
NOTE: All questions are compulsory.
SECTION – A
Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 Marks
- Define Discuss the main determinants of personality development.
- Describe the administration of Rorschach Inkblot
- Discuss neurophysiological basis of traits and
SECTION – B
Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5 x 5 = 25 Marks
- Explain Cattell’s trait approach of
- What is the aim of personality assessment? Discuss some important methods for personality
- Explain Karen Horney’s theory of
- Discuss behavioural assessments in
- Elucidate the scientific criteria essential for assessment techniques before they are
SECTION – C
Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10 x 3 = 30 Marks
- Limitations of personality inventories
- Ayurvedic body types
- Senior Apperception Test
- Holtzman Inkblot Test
- Growth needs
- Reciprocal determinism
- Principles of behaviour modification
SECTION – A
Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 Marks
Q1. Define personality. Discuss the main determinants of personality development.
Ans. The term “personality” is derived from the Latin word ‘persona’ that means “mask”. Among the Greeks, actors used a mask to hide their identity on stage. This dramatic technique was later adopted by the Romans to whom persona denoted “as one appears to others” not as one actually is. Persona literally means, “mask”, although it does not usually refer to a literal mask, but to the “social masks”, all humans supposedly wear. Thus, personality is used in terms of influencing others through external appearance. Sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others.
Personality is an internalised system, which includes all those aspects of a person that are inherited as well as those that are learned. These two internal aspects are interdependent and cannot be isolated.
According to Gordon Allport, “Personality is the dynamic organisation within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment”.
According to Munn, “Personality is the most characteristic integration of an individual’s structures and activities”.
According to Carl Rogers, “Personality is self-organised, permanent, subjectively perceived entity which is at the very heart of all our experiences”.
According to Erickson, “Personality is the outcome of a series of psychological crises”. According to Ruch, personality should include:
- external appearance and behaviour or social stimulus value;
- inner awareness of self as a permanent organising force; and
- the particular pattern or organisation of measurable traits, both inner and
In other words, personality refers to the total person in his overt and covert behaviour. It includes many factors of his being as well as his social, mental, emotional, cultural and
physical aspects. His personality is the reflection of his inner self. His behaviour causes others to respond to him favourably or unfavourably. Hence, his effectiveness as an individual depends upon the extent to which he develops his potentials and how he utilises his talents, capacities and intelligence in dealing with other people. Also, he must know how to adjust equally well to various life situations that confront him with full satisfaction for him and for the people around him.
One who impresses other people is considered as a person having good personality with the ability to get on well with others, whereas those who does not possess such ability is said to have relatively poor personality. However, if one considers personality from a scientific point of view, being attractive to others is not a true concept of personality. In fact, psychologists consider any attempt to define personality in terms of social attractiveness as inadequate because of the following two reasons:
- It limits the number and types of behaviours considered important and worthy for incorporation into the study of
- Such a notion implies that some people who have unique abilities, temperament and traits are devoid of having a
Q2. Describe the administration of Rorschach Inkblot Test.
Ans. Rorschach inkblot test is a combined set of three components, i.e. performance proper, inquiry and scoring. The first two components can be put up as the two stages of the administration of Rorschach test. These components are briefly discussed as follows:
- Performance proper: At this stage, the examinee is asked to get seated and rapport is established with him. First plate is then handled to the client with the question “What do you think this could be?” During the process, the examinee needs to be careful about the following things:
- Reaction time, which means the time gap between the card presentation and examinee’s Exclamations and comments are excluded from scoring.
- The position of the card is also taken account of while examinee is responding and are scored as v, ^, <, > depending on the direction in which the card is turned.
- The responses are recorded verbatim for the reason that the examiner can read it and analyse the same
- The total time for which the card is kept by the subject is also recorded. The time lapsed between the presentation of the card and the first response the subject gives is called the reaction time.
On completion of the first plate, the second plate is given to the examinee, and similarly, all the 10 plates are presented in a sequential manner. The total number of responses is also termed as response productivity ratio and is coded as R. On a Rorschach protocol, for most adults, the score varies from 15 to 30. Vague and uncertain response by the examinee is noted down to be clarified in the second stage of administration, i.e. the inquiry stage.
(2) Inquiry: This stage of administration of Rorschach test is taken up after obtaining responses on all the ten cards during “performance proper”. The basic purpose of conducting inquiry is to collect all the necessary information for the accurate scoring of the responses. Here, a location sheet is presented before the examinee and he is asked to locate the part on the basis of which he has responded, so as to maintain a permanent record of the area of the blot used by the subject in responding. The questions framed for the inquiry stage are based on the examiner’s skill and expertise.
(3) Scoring of Rorschach test: From 1930s to the 1960s, the major differences among the various scoring systems of the Rorschach test were flourished. There is also the focus of concern for Rorschach interpretation based either on the content of the responses or on their formal characteristics, such as location, determinants, form quality and the various quantitative summaries derived from the responses, i.e. the content.
Q3. Discuss neurophysiological basis of traits and types.
Ans. During group psychotherapy, analysis of the dynamics of the neurophysiological characteristics supported the clinical data on varying curability of neurotic patients with different types of character accentuations. For example, patients with the hysteroid type character accentuation appeared more resistant to psychotherapy.
According to Aleksandrov and Shchukina (1992), the neurophysiological indices of neurotic patients with different types of individual character and their dynamics are important factors of personality. Eysenck specify a neurophysiological basis for each of his three personality super traits or types. According to him, the super trait Introversion-extraversion is closely related to levels of cortical arousal as indicated by electroencephalographic recordings. Eysenck’s neurophysiological interpretation of the dimensions of personality is closely related to his theory of psychopathology. He was of the view that the symptoms or disorders that befall a person are related to the combined impact of personality traits and nervous system functioning. For instance, the person who is high on the dimensions of introversion and neuroticism is more prone to develop anxiety disorders such as phobias, obsessions and compulsions. On the other hand, the person who is high on the extraversion and neuroticism dimensions is at a risk for psychopathic (anti-social) disorders. Eysenck stated that psychological disorders do not automatically occur as a result of genetic predisposition. These genetic predispositions when interact with the environment or a certain situation produce psychological disorders.
Individual differences in personality or temperament are analysed in terms of traits, which can be defined as theoretical constructs based on covariation of a number of behavioural acts. However, Eysenck (1991) further supposes that traits themselves intercorrelate and make up higher-order factors or superfactors, which Eysenck calls “types”. He proposes dimensions of personality through his PEN (Psychoticism Extraversion and Neuroticism) model with various biological and neurological explanations as follows:
- Extraversion and Cortical Arousal: Eysenck (1990) provides a biological explanation of extraversion in terms of cortical arousal via the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) as per arousal theory. Activity in the ARAS stimulates the cerebral cortex, which, in turn, leads to higher cortical arousal, which can be measured by skin conductance, brain waves or sweating. Because of the different levels of ARAS activity, “introverts are characterised by higher levels of activity than extraverts and so are chronically more
cortically aroused than extraverts”. Based on the Yerkes-Dodson law, which suggests that arousal and performance have an inverted-U relationship, the arousal theory of the PEN model assumes that “some intermediate level of arousal is optimal for performance”.
- Neuroticism and Visceral Brain Activation: In terms of activation thresholds, Eysenck explains neuroticism in the sympathetic nervous system or visceral The visceral brain is referred to as the limbic system, consists of the hippocampus, amygdala, septum and hypothalamus, regulating such emotional states as sex, fear and aggression. It is responsible for the fight-or-flight response in the face of danger. Heart rate, blood pressure, skin conductance, sweating, breathing rate and muscular tension in the forehead can measure activation levels of the visceral brain. Neurotic individuals have greater activation levels and lower thresholds within the visceral brain. They are easily upset in the face of very minor stresses. However, emotionally stable people are calm under such stresses because they have lesser activation levels and higher thresholds (Eysenck, 1990).
- Psychoticism and Gonadal Hormones: In terms of gonadal hormones such as testosterone and enzymes such as Monoamine Oxidase (MAO), Eysenck (1990) provides a biological explanation of Eysenck reports that low platelet Monoamine Oxydase (MAO) has been found in psychotic patients and also in their relatives and inpatients who have recovered, suggesting that low MAO activity may be a marker for ‘vulnerability’. All things considered, the PEN model has contributed to the study of personality in three distinctive ways.
SECTION – B
Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5 x 5 = 25 Marks Q4. Explain Cattell’s trait approach of personality.
Ans. The most recent advanced theory of personality based on trait approach has been developed by Raymond B. Cattell, a British born American researcher. Cattell defined traits as relatively permanent reaction tendencies that are the basic structural units of the personality. He classified traits in several ways:
Table: Ways of Classifying Traits
|Common traits||Everyone shares common traits to some degree; for example, everyone has some measure of intelligence or of extraversion.|
|Unique traits||Each of us has unique traits that distinguish us as individuals; for example, a liking for politics or an interest in baseball.|
|Ability traits||Our skills and abilities determine how well we can work toward our goals.|
|Temperament traits||Our emotions and feeling (whether we are assertive, fretful, or easy-going, for example) help determine how we react to the people and situations in our environment.|
|Dynamic traits||The forces that underlie our motivations and drive our behavior.|
|Surface traits||Characteristics composed of any number of source traits, or behavioral elements; they may ne unstable and impermanent, weakening or strengthening in response to different
|Source traits||Single, stable, permanent elements of our behavior.|
|Constitutional traits||Source traits that have biological origins, such as the behaviors that result from drinking too much alcohol.|
|Environmental- mold traits||Source traits that have enviromental origins, such as the behaviors that result from the influence of our friends, work environment, or neighborhood.|
- Common Traits and Unique Traits: Cattell distinguished between common traits and unique A common trait is one that is possessed by everyone to some degree. Intelligence, extraversion, and gregariousness are examples of common traits. Everyone has these traits, but some people have them to a greater extent than others. Cattell’s reason for suggesting that common traits are universal is that all people have a similar hereditary potential and are subject to similar social pressures, at least within the same culture.
People differ, as we said, in that they possess different amounts or degrees of these common traits. They also differ because of their unique traits, those aspects of personality shared by few other people. Unique traits are particularly apparent in our interests and attitudes. For example, one person may have a consuming interest in genealogy, whereas another may be passionately interested in Civil War battles or baseball or Chinese martial arts.
- Ability, Temperament and Dynamic Traits: A second way to classify traits is to divide them into ability traits, temperament traits and dynamic traits. Ability traits determine how efficiently we will be able to work towards a goal. Intelligence is an ability trait; our level of intelligence will affect the ways in which we strive for our goals.
Q5. What is the aim of personality assessment? Discuss some important methods for personality assessment.
Ans:- With the growing arena of psychology, testing or assessment is becoming more and more important. Traditionally, tests were employed only to measure individual differences or intra-individual reactions under different circumstances. The nature and extent of individual differences, their possessed psychological traits, differences among various groups, etc. are becoming some of the major components demanding assessment as an aid of measurement.
Personality testing is an essential pre-requisite for identifying the various constituents of personality. Testing in personality provides measures of emotional and motivational traits of personality.
The assessment of personality may also differ with respect to the purposes for which it is done. For example, if the purpose is self-understanding, the person may select different tests/inventories, if the purpose is to classify persons as per their personality traits a different set of tests may be useful. Finally, if the purpose is diagnostic (clinical psychologist, counselors, etc.) an entirely different set of tests may be more useful.
There are several tests/inventories, which are available for the assessment of personality. Broadly, these can be grasped into one of the three categories, i.e. subjective, objective and projective methods. The subjective approach incorporates the assessment of one’s personality taking his/her work into account, e.g. what s/he had done throughout his/her life. In personality assessment, the effort is to make the assessment free from bias of any sort both from the subject/participant (whose personality is to be assessed) and from that of the assessor. It presents that there are so many such test/inventories whereby we can assess personality of a person objectively and these are the important tools for the purpose. While some tests assess the surface characteristics, others uncover the underlying aspects of personality. Among the major procedures that are in use currently, the important ones are those based on content relevance, empirical criterion keying, factor analyses and personality theory. There are various kinds of purposes for which they are conducted in the personality assessment. It is used in the diagnosis of personality disorders through clinical and counselling psychologists, psychiatrists and other psychological professionals.
In an interview, the individual under assessment must be given considerable latitude in “telling his story”. Interviews have both verbal and non-verbal (e.g., gestural) components. The aim of the interview is to gather information, and the adequacy of the data gathered depends in large part on the questions asked by the interviewer. In an employment interview, the focus of the interviewer is generally on the job candidate’s work experiences, general and specific attitudes and occupational goals. In a diagnostic medical or psychiatric interview, considerable attention would be paid to the patient’s physical health and to any symptoms of behavioural disorder that may have occurred over the years. An interview as personality assessment uses personal contact and interaction between an interviewer and an interviewee (respondent) such that personal contact takes place either in a face-to-face situation or via telephone. Survey research emphasises comparison and generalisation, hence, interview requires standardisation and full descriptions of events and issues.
Q6. Explain Karen Horney’s theory of personality.
Ans. Karen Horney, first female psychiatrist criticised the work of Sigmund Freud. In her personality theory, Horney reformulated Freudian thought and presented a holistic, humanistic perspective that emphasised cultural and social influences, human growth, and the achievement of self-actualisation. Horney’s theory can be explained as follows:
- Basic Anxiety: Human beings are genetically predisposed to anxiety (Capelli, 2006). However, Horney emphasised the anxiety that arises as a result of social forces.
As human beings, our essential challenge is to be able to relate effectively to other people. Basic anxiety, an insidiously increasing, all-pervading feeling of being lonely and helpless in a hostile world (Horney, 1945), results from feelings of insecurity in these relations. According to Horney’s concept of basic anxiety, the environment as a whole is dreaded because it is seen as unrealistic, dangerous, unappreciative, and unfair. Children are not simply afraid of their own inner impulses or of punishment because of their impulses, as Freud postulated in his concepts of neurotic and moral anxiety; they also feel at times that the environment itself is a threat to their development and innermost wishes. Some parents and caregivers, for example, are unable to meet children’s needs. Horney called all of the negative factors in the environment that can provoke insecurity in a child basic evil. Some of these conditions might be domination, isolation, overprotection, hostility, indifference, inconsistent behaviour, disparagement, parental discord, lack of respect and guidance, or the lack of encouragement and warmth. Such behaviours undermine a child’s security and cause feelings of basic hostility, which must be repressed for fear of losing the parent’s love (Horney, 1937). Children’s fears may be objectively unrealistic, but for them they are real. In a hostile environment, children’s ability to use their energies and develop self-esteem and reliance is thwarted. Children may be rendered powerless in the face of these encroachments. Their biological dependency and the failure of parents to foster adaptive self-assertive behaviour may leave them helpless. Although children may endure a certain amount of frustration and trauma, it is essential for healthy personality development that they feel safe and secure.
Some of the same concerns that occupied Horney led to the formulation of object relations theory (Ingram and Lerner, 1992). Horney’s ideas on the importance of early-interpersonal relationships are reflected in the writings of Heinz Kohut, whose theory is discussed in the chapter on human relations. Horney suggested (1939) that the emphasis on the Oedipus complex tends to detract from the significance of “early-relationships in their totality.” This view forecasts Kohut’s position that the Oedipus complex is a product of disintegration resulting from parents’ failure to respond with pride and empathy to the growth of their children (Quinn, 1994).
- Neurotic needs and Trends: In the face of basic anxiety, children develop certain defence attitudes or strategies that permit them to cope with the world and afford a certain measure of gratification (Horney, 1937). Many of these strategies continue into adulthood. Specifically, we use them to deal with or minimise feelings of anxiety and to assist us in effectively relating to others. When they become exaggerated or inappropriate, these strivings may be referred to as neurotic needs or trends. Neurotic trends are the result of the formative experiences that create basic
Q7. Discuss behavioural assessments in personality.
Ans. Behavioural assessments provide a thorough assessment of an identified behaviour, including analysis of the interrelatedness of antecedent “triggers”, components of the behaviour itself, and consequences of the behaviour. Reinforcing factors are identified and recommendations are made for behaviour change.
Behavioural assessment involves observing or otherwise measuring a person’s actual behaviour. In other words, what they actually do, in one or more settings where the person is experiencing some sort of behavioural difficulty. Once the behaviour is defined and measured, careful consideration is given to different factors that may be reinforcing and maintaining the behaviour.
Finally, a detailed plan containing strategies for changing or replacing the behaviour is generated. Behavioural assessment typically involves one or more interviews and observations, and may involve various formal and informal assessment measures as needed.
Behavioural assessment generally falls within two broad categories: clinical behavioural assessment and functional behavioural assessment. Clinical behavioural assessment is usually conducted for problems exhibited in home, school, work, or other settings, and is usually produced to provide a clear intervention plan for therapists, case managers, family members, or others who work with the person being evaluated. CEH clinicians are well-skilled to provide these kinds of evaluations and plans.
Q8. Elucidate the scientific criteria essential for assessment techniques before they are acceptable.
Ans. We use various techniques for personality assessment or testing so there should be some criteria for assurance of accurate and prompt result. These criteria have been discussed as follows:
- Standardisation: Many assessments use a procedure to make sure that their instrument is consistent (reliable) and measures what it is designed to measure (valid) using statistical This process is known as standardisation. It creates a set of norms against which an individual can be measured. Psychologists like to use standardised tests in addition to observational data and clinical interviews in order to make diagnosis.
Standardised tests used to access different areas are called a standardised test battery, and the process usually includes observations, clinical interviews and mental status examination, together with standardised cognitive and personality tests. Additional tests to measure the impact from trauma may be used when the person has experienced an assault, domestic violence, sexual abuse, or other traumatic events. If there is a suspicion, history, or evidence of someone having committed a violent act, there may also be need to perform a violence or sexual offender risk assessment using special assessment inventories for this purpose.
Prior to the more careful development of reliable criteria with which to make a diagnosis, different mental health practitioners would differ on what certain signs and symptom meant.
- Norms: The standardisation of a personality assessment test includes information concerning whether a particular “raw score” ranks low, high or average relative to other “raw scores” on the test. Such information, called test norms, provides standards with which the scores of various individuals who take the test later can be compared. Usually, the raw scores on a test are converted into percentile scores, which indicate the percentage of people who score at or below a particular score. Thus, test norms permit the comparison of individual scores to a representative group so as to quantify the individual’s relative rank standing to
- Reliability: Reliability means that repeated administrations of the same test or another form of test should yield reasonably the same results or scores. Any test whether personality or intelligence or aptitude, etc. should have reliability and this should be demonstrated. There are the following types of reliabilities:
- Test-retest reliability: This type of reliability refers to the consistency or stability of an assessment technique when given to the same group of people on two different occasions. To determine test-retest reliability, the scores from the first administration are correlated with those of the second by a simple correlation procedure. The magnitude of resulting correlation coefficient gives us an estimate of the test’s consistency over time. Although there are no fixed guidelines about acceptable levels of reliability, the reliability coefficients for most psychological tests are above +.70. The closer this statistic approaches +1.00, the more reliable the test is. In other words, when retested, people’s scores should match their first scores quite
- Split-half reliability: A second kind of reliability is determined by splitting the test into two sets (e.g., odd-numbered items versus even-numbered items), summing people’s scores for each set, and correlating the two sets of summed scores with each other. The correlation between these sets is termed as split-half reliability and reflects the test’s internal If the composite set of test items is consistently measuring the same underlying personality dimension, then people who score high on odd items should also score high on even items, and people who score low on odd items should also score low on even items (again reflected in a high positive correlation).
SECTION – C
Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10 x 3 = 30 Marks Q9. Aptitudes
Ans:- It refers to the extent to which an individual can perform a given activity well and they represent a dimension of ability though they are more specific than abilities. It means that all aptitudes are abilities but not all abilities are aptitudes. For instance, a tall person may have the ability to reach at the highest shelf but this could not be considered his aptitude. On the basis of factor analysis, Guilford (1959) identified three primary aptitudes, i.e. perceptual aptitudes, psychomotor aptitudes and intelligence.
The perceptual aptitudes are related to the various sense modalities and include factors like visual, auditory and kinesthetic sensitivity. The physical educators, dance instructors and athletic coaches have shown the abilities of psychomotor aptitudes. Human engineers also need psychomotor aptitudes because they have to design machine in such a way that they must be operated conveniently. Intelligence is a general aptitude. Guilford developed his famous Structure-of-intellect model based upon three primary parameters of operations, products and contents. Originally, there were five categories of operation and six categories of product and four categories of content in this model.
Ans:- NEO-PI is a self-report measure of personality features that comprise an influential model of personality known as the Five-Factor Model (FFM). The FFM has evolved over the
past four decades and has roots in both the lexical tradition (the analysis of trait adjectives found in English and other languages) and the factor analytic tradition in personality research. As operationalised by the NEO-PI-R, the five factors or domains are Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Each domain has six facets or subscales—personality traits that represent various aspects of each domain.
The NEO-PI consists of 240 items (8 items for each of the 30 facets, or 48 items for each of the five domains). Individuals rate each of the 240 statements on a 5-point scale (strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree and strongly agree). Research that led to development of the NEO-PI-R began in the 1970s. At that time, there was no clear consensus regarding which personality model or system provided the most useful and comprehensive description of personality features.
Q11. Limitations of personality inventories
Ans:- • Since inventories measure personality in terms of discrete traits they become unscientific. Personality can not be explained in terms of discrete traits but it is a totality so it should be measured as a whole.
- Due to lack of acceptable criterion, personality inventories are not highly reliable tools of personality measurement and the data gathered can not be interpreted correctly.
- Since most of the items in inventories are vague and unclear, a person attempting them is able to fake the response and hide his originality.
- It can be used only by literate
Q12. Ayurvedic body types
Ans. The basic principle underlying the Ayurvedic theory of personality is the tridosha system. Ayurveda holds that three essential qualities, the doshas, are present in all things, including human bodies and psyches. The three doshas represent combinations of the Five Great Elements; the relative proportion of the doshas in a person determines the person’s body type and unique personality characteristics. The body types governed by the three doshas are similar to the three somatotypes describes by William Sheldon.
The first dosha is vata, which is a combination of either and air. It is the dominant dosha in people who are active, restless and unpredictable. The second dosha is pitta, a combination of fire and water that typifies people who are temperamental, inclined to anger, and highly organised. The third dosha, kapha, is a compound of earth and water, and predominates in people who are sluggish, inclined to overweight and stable in temperament.
Q13. Senior Apperception Test
Ans:- The 16 stimulus pictures on this test, which was designed specifically for older adults, reflect themes of loneliness, uselessness, illness, helplessness, and lowered self-esteem, in addition to positive and happier situations. As in the case of the Gerontological Apperception Test (Wolk and Wolk, 1971), a similar instrument, responses to the pictures on the Senior Apperception Technique reflect serious concerns over health, getting along with other people
and being placed in a nursing or retirement home. Both tests have been criticized for inadequate norms and possible stereotyping of the elderly
Q14. Holtzman Inkblot Test
Ans:- A similar method, the Holtzman Inkblot Test, has been developed in an effort to eliminate some of the statistical problems that beset the Rorschach test. It involves the administration of a series of 45 inkblots, the subject being permitted to make only one response per card. The Holtzman has the desirable feature that it provides an alternate series of 45 additional cards for use in retesting the same person. Each response is followed by a two-fold simple question, i.e. “Where was the percept represented in the blot and what the percept suggests about the blot?” All the responses are then classified under 22 response variables.
It has been found by many researchers that Holtzman test appears to be better standardised than the Rorschach test. Also the scorer reliability of the HIT is highly satisfactory validity data on HIT have also yielded satisfactory results.
Q15. Growth needs
Ans:- As for neurosis, Maslow was of a totally different view point. He stated that every individual would like to reach the stage of self-actualisation, which is the last stage in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Maslow has used a variety of terms to refer to this level and he has called this as growth motivation in contrast to deficit motivation. That is, there are certain needs which contribute to the growth and development of the person, and these are called as ‘being’ needs (or B-needs,), which is in contrast to Deficit or the D-needs), and self- actualisation.
Q16. Reciprocal determinism
Ans. Reciprocal determinism means that behaviour changes are determined from interactions between a person and his/her environment. The environment can influence or discourage a person in a healthy way or can be detrimental, since some environments may be healthy while others may not. Conversely, people can influence the environment so that it is more conducive to a healthy lifestyle.
Bandura’s social learning theory favours a model of causation involving triadic reciprocal determinism. In this model of reciprocal causation, behaviour, cognition and other personal factors, and other environmental influences all operate as interacting determinants that influence each other bidirectionally.
Q17. Principles of behaviour modification
Ans:- For behaviour modification, the principle of classical conditioning is found to be very useful, which have also been applied in the treatment of neurosis and phobias. Rather than focussing on the root of the problem like a traditional psychopathologist, a behaviourist could focus on eliminating the symptom by bringing classical conditioning into play. By reinforcing the extinction of the symptom, the psychopathological illness of the patient could be eliminated. For example, the therapeutic technique, known as flooding which is used to treat phobias, relies on the principles of extinction. Systematic desensitisation is still another
important technique successfully in dealing with a wide variety of maladaptive behaviours including examination anxiety, phobias, nightmares, stuttering, depression, obsession, impotence and anorexia nervosa, based on the principles of extinction.
Ans:- Beginning in infancy and continuing throughout the various developmental stages, people acquire certain images of themselves and others. These images, called personifications, may be relatively accurate, or because they are coloured by people’s needs and anxieties, they may be grossly distorted. Sullivan (1953b) described three basic personifications that develop during infancy—the bad mother, the good mother, and the me. In addition, some children acquire an eidetic personification (imaginary playmate) during childhood.
(a) Me Personifications: During infancy, children acquire three “me” personifications:
(I) the bad-me, which grows from experiences of punishment and disapproval, (II) the good- me, which results from experiences with reward and approval, and (III) the not-me, which allows a person to dissociate or selectively inattend the experiences related to anxiety.