IGNOU BSHF 101 ENGLISH SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2021-22
BSHF 101 EM 2022
DCQ: Answer any two in about 500 words each.
- Discuss the role of Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian National Movement
Mahatma Gandhi is perhaps the most widely recognized figure of the Indian Nationalist Movement for his role in leading non-violent civil uprisings. He first employed the non-violent approach in South Africa where he was serving as an expatriate lawyer. He was hurt and angry when he witnessed the discrimination and exploitation of coloured people under Whites rule. He organizes non-violent protests in the country which gained him fame and support from the people of South Africa. Unforgettable is his services which gave us freedom, the same are enumerated below.
- The Satyagraha Movement:-
One of his major achievements is in the year 1918 were the Champaran and Kheda agitations which are also called a movement against British landlords. The farmers and peasantry were forced to grow and cultivate Indigo and were even to force to sell them at fixed prices. Finally, these farmers pledged to Mahatma Gandhi which resulted in non-violent protest. Wherein Gandhiji won the battle. Kheda, in the year 1918 was hit by floods and farmers wanted relief from tax. Using non-cooperation as his main weapon Gandhiji used it in pledging the farmers for nonpayment of taxes.
- Khilafat Movement:
Gandhiji in the year 1919 approached Muslims, as he found the position of Congress was quite weak and unstable. Khilafat Movement is all about the worldwide protest against the status of Caliph by Muslims. Finally, Mahatma Gandhi had an All India Muslim Conference and became the main person for the event. This movement supported Muslims to a great extent and the success of this movement made him the national leader and facilitated his strong position in the Congress party. Khilafat movement collapsed badly in 1922 and throughout their journey, Gandhiji fought against communalism, but the gap between Hindus and Muslims widened.
- The Non-Cooperation Movement
The first of the Gandhi-led movements was the Non-Cooperation Movement lasting from September 1920 until February 1922. Gandhi, during this movement, believed that the British were only successful in maintaining control because the Indians were cooperative. If the residents of a country stop co-operating with the British, then the minority Britishers would be forced to give up. The movement gained popularity, and soon, millions of people were boycotting British-run or cooperative establishments. This meant that people left their jobs, removed their children from schools, and avoided government offices. The name Mahatma Gandhi became popular.
- The Dandi March, Civil Disobedience, and Salt Satyagraha
The abrupt ending of the Non-Cooperation Movement did nothing to stop the quest for independence. On March 12, 1930, protesters took part in the Dandi March, a campaign designed to resist taxes and protest the British monopoly on salt. Gandhi began the 24-day, 240-mile march with 79 followers and ended with thousands. When the protesters reached the coastal town of Dandi, they produced salt from saltwater without paying the British tax.
This act was accompanied by civil disobedience across the country. The Dandi group continued moving south along the coast, producing salt along the way.
- The Quit India Movement
The Quit India Movement began on August 8, 1942, during World War II. The India Congress Committee, under the urging of Gandhi, called for a mass British withdrawal and Gandhi made a “Do or Die” speech. British officials acted immediately and arrested nearly every member of the Indian National Congress party. England, with a new Prime Minister, offered some concessions to the Indian demands such as the right to make independent Provincial constitutions, to be granted after the war; they were not accepted.
- What do you understand by the term ‘family’?
Family is one of the most important social institutions. Most of the world’s population lives in family units; it is an important primary group in the society. Family is the most pervasive and universal social institution. It plays a vital role in the socialisation of individuals. Family is regarded as the first society of human beings. It is known as the first school of citizenship. One is born in family, grows in it, works for it and dies in it. One develops emotional attachment to it. The parental care imparts to the child the first lesson in social responsibility and acceptance of self-discipline. Family is the backbone of social structure. It occupies a nuclear position in society.
Broadly speaking, family refers to the group comprising parents and children. It may also refer, in some cases, to a group of relatives and their dependants forming one household. All these refer to the compositional aspect of this institution. Another aspect is that of residence of its members.
They usually share common residence, at least for some part of their lives. Thirdly, there is the relational aspect of the family. Members have reciprocal rights and duties towards each other. Finally, the family is also an agent of socialisation. All these aspects make this institution different from all other units of social structure.
As Mack and Young say, “The family is the basic primary group and the natural matrix of personality”. According to the Bureau of Census (U.S.A.). “Family is a group of two or more persons related by blood, marriage or adoption and residing together”. Some of other important definitions of family are as follows.
According to Maclver and Page, “Family is a group defined by a sex relationship, sufficiently precise and enduring to provide for the procreation and upbringing of children”.
According to Burgess and Locke, “Family is a group of persons united by the ties of marriage, blood or adoption; consisting a single household, interacting and intercommunicating with each other in their social roles of husband and wife, mother and father, son and daughter, brother and sister creating a common culture”.
Characteristics of family:
1. A Mating Relationship:
A family comes into existence when a man and woman establish mating relation between them.
2. A Form of Marriage:
Mating relationship is established through the institution of marriage. The society regulates sexual behaviour between opposite sexes through the institution of marriage. Through the institution of marriage, mating relationship is established. Without marriage family is not possible. Hence, family is a form of marriage.
3. A Common Habitation:
A family requires a home or household for its living. Without a dwelling place the task of child-bearing and child rearing cannot be adequately performed. The members of a family have a common habitation or household.
4. A System of Nomenclature:
Every family is known by a particular name. It has own system of reckoning descent. Descent may be recognized through male line or through the mother’s line. In patrilineal families descent is recognized through male line. Similarly, in matrilineal families descent is recogned through mother’s line.
5. An Economic Provision:
Every family needs an economic provision to satisfy the economic needs. The head of the family carries on certain profession and earns to maintain the family.
6. System of Interaction and Communication:
The family is composed of persons who interact and communicate with each other in their social roles such as husband and wife, mother and father, son and daughter etc. It is important to mention that the family is composed of persons united by ties of marriage, blood or adoption. The family maintains a common but a distinctive culture.
MCQ: Answer any four questions in about 250 words each.
- What do you understand by the term ‘Human Security’.Briefly discuss.
According to Article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the right to security of persons is a fundamental human right, together with a right to life and liberty. Human society emphasizes the need to strengthen empowerment of the citizens. Achievement of human society requires a global political culture that is founded on shared values of human dignity and human right. In essence, human society means freedom from pervasive threats to people’s rights, their safety or even their lives.
The main contraction of UNDP’S conception of Human Society was focusing on people and highlighting of vulnerability to threats other than violence. It saw security as on “integrative” rather that “defensive concept”. But it seemed to underplay threats from violence. It emphasizes that human security has a geographical and even international terrorism, drug trafficking as well as problem of international migrants spilling over outside the boundaries of the nation-state.
Democracy and good Governance are very important in promoting human security. Human security does not supplant national security. A Human Security perspective assorts that the security of the state is not an end in itself rather it is a means of ensuing Security for its people. In this context, state security and human security are mutually supportive. Building an effective, democratic state that values its own people and protects minorities is a central strategy for promoting human security.
Concept of Human Security:
Human security means safety for people from both violent and non-violent threats. It is the condition or state of being characterized by freedom from pervasive threats to people’s rights, their safety, or even their lives. Human security entails taking preventive measure to reduce vulnerability and minimize risk and taking remedial action where prevention fails.
The perception of Human Security Network is ‘Our vision is a human world where people can live in security and dignity, free from violent threats, poverty and despair.’ UN Secretary General Kofi-Annan articulated that the primary focus of security policy should be the protection of people, rather than the political and territorial integrity of states, is central to the concept of ‘human security’.
Human Security is a logical extension of recent approaches to international peace and security. The charter of UN embodies the view that security cannot be achieved by a single state in isolation. The phrase ‘international peace and security’ implies that the security of our state depends on the security of other states.
A human security perspective builds on this logic by noting that the security of people in one part of the world depends on the security of people elsewhere. A secure and stable world order is built both from the top down and from the bottom up. The security of states, and the maintenance of international peace and security, is ultimately constructed on the foundation of people who are secure. According to the UNDP, human security is a universal concern; the compounds of human security are inter-dependent; human security is easier to ensure through early prevention; and human security is people-centered. The definition advance in the reports was extremely ambitious. Human Security was defined as the summation of seven distinct dimensions of security – economics, food, health, environment, personal, community and political. By focusing on people and highlighting non-traditional threats, the UNDP made an important contribution to post -Cold War thinking about security.
- Is Planning relevant in India today?Discuss
Planning has to be an integral part of governing a country like India. In the absence of proper planning, projects of national interest cannot be implemented. During the days of the Planning Commission things were thrust down from above, but a more practical bottom up and participative approach has been adopted under the recently formed Niti Aayog. The word NITI stands for National Institute for Transforming India. In the 65 years of the Planning Commission, planning was done for every five years by this arm of the Government, which functioned under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister. The states had to blindly follow the diktats of the Commission. Today, leaders of all states and union territories are members of the Niti Aayog and they all participate in the planning process. Garnering of resources and their allocation is done by the Niti Aayog after discussions are held with all stakeholders. Welfare measures like healthcare, education, social and sectoral services are adopted and money allocated in a judicious manner, depending on the needs and availability of funds. Infrastructure spending is done after examining the requirements of regions and states. The planning process is also of vital importance for the Union Finance Ministry, which oversees the collection and spending of money in an effective manner. If there is no planning in a country like India, the Central Government will not be able to keep track of the progress of the country and the position of the needy will continue to slide from bad to worse.
- How has the nature of peace and conflict changed in today’s world?
For a constructive transformation of conflicts, it is necessary to identify and consolidate support structures that texts to strengthen peace. Positive opportunities can be enhanced through the awareness of mutual dependence on one another. Changing psychological dimensions of adversarial relationship supported by the opportunities to understand different views is undoubtedly an inevitable part of the movement toward conflict de-escalation. Moreover, efforts to end hostile, competitive and coercive processes would be fruitless if .one party’s domination continues to be allowed. Newly forged relationships have to be supported by structural transformation of social conditions. In a transformative framework, identity and power relations continue’ to be renegotiated in an on-going process of resolving conflict. Dynamics of conflict are not likely to be transformed toward resolution by an attempt to protect existing interests. Re-establishing a status quo would not dramatically change conflict relations. In transformative perspectives, roles and relationship have to be redesigned in the process of re-structuring the patterns of transactions and interactions. .Resolving conflict in transformative perspectives has to be geared toward helping the underprivileged break out of the discriminatory social roles assigned to them within the status quo. The existence of injustice in asymmetric conflict structures requires strategies to deal with power imbalanced situations. Social change for promoting justice, by which conditions for decent human life can be established, is the most appropriate means for peace building. Thus peace building ih largely equated with the construction of a new social environment that advances a sense of confidence and improves conditions of life. Leaving an abusive and deperldcilt relatiionship intact is incompatible with peace building. Conflict transformation can underscore the goal of peace building through empowering a marginalised population exposed to extreme vulnerability in such a way to achieve self-sufficiency and well-being. The successful outcome of conflict transformation therefore contributes to eliminating structural violence.
- What do you understand by the term ‘Directive Principles’ as given in our constitution?
Directive Principles of State Policy are in the form of instructions/guidelines to the governments at the center as well as states. Though these principles are non-justiciable, they are fundamental in the governance of the country. The idea of Directive Principles of State Policy has been taken from the Irish Republic. They were incorporated in our Constitution in order to provide economic justice and to avoid concentration of wealth in the hands of a few people. Therefore, no government can afford to ignore them. They are infact, the directives to the future governments to incorporate them in the decisions and policies to be formulated by them.
The state shall endeavour to achieve Social and Economic welfare of the people by:
(1) providing adequate means of livelihood for both men and women.
(2) reorganizing the economic system in a way to avoid concentration of wealth in few hands.
(3) securing equal pay for equal work for both men and women.
(4) securing suitable employment and healthy working conditions for men, women and children.
(5) guarding the children against exploitation and moral degradation.
(6) making effective provisions for securing the right to work, education and public assistance in case of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement.
(7) making provisions for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief.
(8) taking steps to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings etc.
(9) promoting education and economic interests of working sections of the people especially the SCs and STs.
(10) securing for all the workers reasonable leisure and cultural opportunities.
SCQ: Write short notes on any two in about 100 words each:
- (ii) Juvenile Justice Act
Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 has been passed by Parliament of India amidst intense controversy, debate and protest on many of its provisions by Child Rights fraternity. It replaced the Indian juvenile delinquency law, Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000, and allows for juveniles in conflict with Law in the age group of 16–18, involved in Heinous Offences, to be tried as adults. The Act also sought to create a universally accessible adoption law for India, overtaking the Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act (1956) (applicable to Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, and Sikhs) and the Guardians and Wards Act (1890) (applicable to Muslims), though not replacing them. The Act came into force from 15 January 2016. It was passed on 7 May 2015 by the Lok Sabha amid intense protest by several Members of Parliament. It was passed on 22 December 2015 by the Rajya Sabha. To streamline adoption procedures for orphan, abandoned and surrendered children, the existing Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) has been given the status of a statutory body to enable it to perform its function more effectively. A separate chapter on Adoption provides detailed provisions relating to adoption and punishments for non compliance. Processes have been streamlined with timelines for both in-country and inter-country adoption including declaring a child legally free for adoption.
13 (iii) Social Structure
In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of individuals. Likewise, society is believed to be grouped into structurally-related groups or sets of roles, with different functions, meanings, or purposes. Examples of social structure include family, religion, law, economy, and class. It contrasts with “social system“, which refers to the parent structure in which these various structures are embedded. Thus, social structures significantly influence larger systems, such as economic systems, legal systems, political systems, cultural systems, etc. Social structure can also be said to be the framework upon which a society is established. It determines the norms and patterns of relations between the various institutions of the society.