You are currently viewing IGNOU FST-1 ENG SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2021-22


(Tutor Marked Assignment)
Course Code: FST-1
Assignment Code: FST1/TMA/2022
Max. Marks: 100.


1. Discuss the impact of Freedom Movement on the development of Science and Technology in India. (10)

2. Explain why it is important to know the History of Science. (10)

3. List three ways of technology transfer and discuss its implications. (10)

4. How can the technological advances in mass communication benefit the distance education system in India? Discuss. (10)

5. Write an essay on the scientific possibilities and social realities in context of Agriculture in India. (10)

6. Write a detailed note on water and vector born diseases. (10)

7. How mineral resources can be made sustainably available? Elucidate. (10)

8. Explain the formation of solar system. (10)

9. Explain the Theory of Chemical Evolution on scientific basis. (10)

10. Make a table showing protein and energy contents of ten common foods. (10)



Foundation course in Science & Technology


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1.     Discuss the impact of Freedom Movement on the development of Science and Technology in India. (10)

Answer: By the early twentieth century, the Indian society had started witnessing the first stirrings for freedom from colonial rule. While their political aspirations led to a demand for self-rule, the frustration resulting from economic stranglehold found expression in their insistence on using only goods made in India. Swadeshi Movement provided further impetus for:

  • Promotion of education along national lines and under national   control with special reference to science and technology;
  • Industrialisation of the country

In 1904, an Association for the Advancement of Scientific and Industrial Education of Indians was formed. The objective was to send qualified students to Europe, America and Japan for studying science-based industries. As mentioned earlier, in colonial India the environment was not conducive to higher studies, much less to research. Indians were allowed only subordinate posts and even those who had distinguished themselves abroad were given less salary than the Europeans of the same grade and rank. This „apartheid‟ in science made the Indians respond strongly. J. C. Bose, the first noted Indian physicist, refused to accept this reduced salary for three years. Not only this, till the Royal Society recognised Bose, the college authorities refused him any research facility and considered his work as purely private. J. C. Bose was unorthodox in one more sense. He was one of the first among the modem scientists to take to interdisciplinary research. He started as a physicist but his interest in electrical responses took him to plant physiology. To fight for a place and recognition in the scientific circles in Britain was no less difficult than fighting against the administrative absurdities of a colonial government. Bose persisted and won. Another noted Indian scientist, P. C. Ray had also suffered similarly. On his return from England in 1888 with a doctorate in chemistry, he had to hang around for a year and was finally offered a temporary assistant professorship. All through he  had to remain in Provincial Service. P. N. Bose, preferred to resign, when in 1903 he was superseded for the directorship of the Geological Survey by T. Holland who was 10 years junior to him. These problems were reflected on the political platform of the country. In its third session (1887), the Indian National Congress took up the question of technical education and has since then passed resolutions on it every year. K. T. Telang and B. N. Seal pointed out how, in the name of technical education, the government was merely imparting lower forms of practical training. The Indian Medical Service was also severely criticised. In 1893, the Congress passed a resolution asking the government “to raise a scientific medical profession in India by throwing open fields for medical and scientific work to the best talent available and indigenous talent in particular.” Whether it be education, agriculture or mining, the Congress touched several problems under its wide sweep.

In the wake of the first World War (1914-18), the Government realised that India must become more self-reliant scientifically and industrially. It appointed an Indian Industrial Commission in 1916 to examine steps that might be taken to lessen India’s scientific and industrial dependence on Britain. The scope of the resulting recommendations was broad, covering many aspects of industrial development. But few of the Commission‟s recommendations were actually implemented. Similar was the fate of numerous other conferences and committees. Whenever  requests were made by Indians for starting new, institutions or expanding existing ones, the government pleaded insufficiency of funds or inadequacy of demand. The interests of the colonial administration and those of the nationalists in most instances often clashed. If we look at the events during the first quarter of the twentieth century, we find that this period was characterised by debate about further development. When Gandhi started his campaign for cottage industries, varying notes were heard at the annual session of the Indian Science Congress. P.

  1. Ray, for example, held that general progress through elementary education and traditional industries is a necessary precondition for scientific progress. But many differed with him. M. N. Saha and his Science and Culture group opposed the Gandhian path of economic development and supported setting up of big industries. The socialist experiments in Russia had unveiled the immense potentialities of science for man in terms of economy and material progress. The national leadership was veering towards heavy industrialisation and socialism, both of which stood on the foundations of modern science and technology. On Saha’s persuasion, the then Congress President Subhas Chandra Bose agreed to accept national planning and industrialisation as the top item on the Congress agenda. The result was the formation of the National Planning Committee in 1938 under the chairmanship of Jawaharlal Nehru. This Committee appointed 29 subcommittees, many of which dealt with such technical subjects as irrigation, industries, public  health and education. The subcommittee of Technical Education worked under the Chairmanship of M. N. Saha. Other members were Birbal Sahni, J. C. Ghose, J. N. Mukherjee, N. R. Dhar, Nazir Ahmed, S. S. Bhatnagar and A. H. Pandya. The subcommittee reviewed the activities of the existing institutions to find out how far the infrastructure of wo/men and apparatus was sufficient in turning out technical personnel. The outbreak of the Second World War (1939-45) and the interruption of the direct sea route between India and England made it necessary for the colonial government to allow greater industrial capability to develop in India. It was, therefore, felt necessary to establish a Central Research Organisation and this was eventually followed by the establishment of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research in 1942. As part of the post-war reconstruction plan, the government invited A. V. Hill, President of the Royal Society. In 1944, he prepared a report that identified various problems confronting research in India. These developments offered greater opportunities to Indian scientists in policy- making and management of scientific affairs. In fact, the origins of the science policy of free India and of the whole national reconstruction can be traced to these activities. The foregoing analysis of British India illustrates that it was futile to expect the emergence of science here under an alien administration obsessed with one-sided commercial preferences. In such a situation, field sciences were developed to exploit natural resources and grow commercial crops; but a balanced  development of research did not take place. When industry was not allowed to develop, many related sciences could not grow properly. As we have discussed, an atmosphere of vitality and exuberance in the social and economic life was necessary to bring forth innovative ideas and to encourage scientific progress. Individual scientists, however, did shine in adverse circumstances. It was all the more so under the influence of a larger social movement and struggle, which promised to liberate and transform society. Thus, the situation changed when India became independent in 1947. In the next lecture, we shall discuss the developments in science and technology in postcolonial India.

2.    Explain why it is important to know the History of Science. (10)

Answer: The history of science is not a chronological description of events of scientific discovery. It is a story of an ongoing process of the interaction of science and society. It begins in the primitive human society and threads its way through different ages which have seen different forms of society, up to the modern times (Fig. 1.1). It is a story of how social



Fig. 1.1: Three societies belonging to different epochs-the Stone Age. the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. (a) Primitive human beings depended on food gathering and hunting for their survival and mainly used stone tools: some Stone Age tools; primitive human beings; @) the Bronze Age is marked by the practice of agriculture and the use of bronze tools: sowing of crops using ox- drawn plough and reaping with a sickle; an Egyptian Pharaoh Tutenkhamen. fourteenth century B.C.; (c) the lron Age is marked by the discovery of iron and its widesprtad use for making tools and implements. It was also a period of constant war between societies: a slave working in a black-smith’s shop; a hoplite- infantryman of the warring Greek states  and economic pressures arising out of a given form of society necessitate particular inventions and innovations. These innovations are gradually used and absorbed by dominant social forces to stabilise their domination. The stability eventually leads to social stagnation. In the period of stability, new ideas in science and technology do arise. These ideas may be ahead of their times, and it may not be possible to put all of them into practice, in the prevailing socio-economic conditions. Later on, new social groups and forces take shape, often out of the frustrated and exploited sections of the society. These new groups press for full utilisation of the new ideas, inventions and discoveries. Out of such demands and struggles arises a new society, with new forces as the dominant section. The process is not an endless circle, as with each phase science takes society to a qualitatively higher phase.


Each higher phase has more complex problems and social relations, creating even more complex and difficult problems for science to solve. While the above picture has a rough universal validity, the actual story has interesting variations. For example, stagnation in a given geographical area or society does not always lead to radical changes in the same area or society. New ideas are sometimes transmitted through human interaction, due to trade and other means of communication, to other geographical locations.

There, the society may be more conducive to a rapid change. Again, in a given society, successive changes may be rapid in a particular epoch (period of time). In a different epoch, in the same locality, changes may be extremely slow. We also have to understand the world situation in which such a society functions. It is in this perspective that we are going to study the history of science. Science, as it is today, is not a product of disinterested search for truth by a few gifted individuals. Nor is it a monument where one brick is simply placed on top of the other to pain magnificence. The history of science is a story of human life. It is a story of human striving in all its failings. frailties and strengths. It is a story of the interaction of science with other forces in society such as economics, politics, psychology, culture and social organization (Fig. 1.2). OnIy through such a study of the past can we understand the present so as to control the future for the welfare of mankind


3.    List three ways of technology transfer and discuss its implications. (10) Answer: Meaning of Technology Transfer

The process of disseminating knowledge, skills, and other know-how that manifests in the form of technology from its owner (individual or an organization) to another person or organization is known as technology transfer. It is also popularly known as Transfer of Technology. Various stakeholders amongst whom technology transfer takes place include universities, business organizations, research and innovation societies, and others.

Such transfer takes place with the motive to share skills, knowledge, technologies, methods of manufacturing, and other related profit motives. The transfer is further done with an intention to provide improved accessibility to a wide range of users who can then further develop and exploit the technology to develop new products, processes, applications, materials, or services.

Types of Technology Transfer

Technology transfer can be broadly classified into vertical and horizontal technology transfer.

  1. Vertical Technology Transfer– This chain of transfer includes basic research to applied research, applied research to development, and from development to It is also known as internal technology transfer. This type of transfer is mostly carried out between research associations, universities, and governments, among others.
  2. Horizontal Technology Transfer– When the technology that has already been put in place or use within one organization is further transferred and used in another place, the transfer is known as horizontal technology transfer. It is also known as external technology transfer. This type of transfer takes place between private companies, small and large business organizations, among

Methods of Technology Transfer

Technology transfer can take place using the following instruments.

  1. Licensing– An agreement between the owner of the technology (Licensor) and the receiver (Licensee) which gives the right to use the technology developed or owned by the transferring individual or company for a specified time period is known as  The two broad categories of licensing include the one which grants exclusive rights to use the technology and another which grants non-exclusive rights wherein the owner reserves the right to further transfer the technology to other company apart from the receiver. It may also include the right to sub-license, permitting the licensee to grant someone else the right to use the technology.
  2. Joint Venture Agreement– The company executes a joint venture agreement with respect to technology transfer for a particular business with a vision to incorporate long-term cooperation between the parties, the motivation of all participants in the successful transfer, and to incur lower costs as compared to working independently.
  3. Franchising– It is one of the most preferred methods of transferring  The companies generally transfer technical know-how or skill involved under this type of agreement.


4.      How can the technological advances in mass communication benefit the distance education system in India? Discuss. (10)

Answer: Transmission of knowledge and information, which is the first step in education, is obviously possible only through communication. This happens in a classroom situation, in a factory, a workshop or even in a group-discussion. It is through the process of communication, that the knowledge is transferred from one person to another or to a group. The training in skills and the technique of doing a job go through the same process. The availability of media, radio, TV, films, slides, charts or other illustrations, has supplemented books and teachers in the task of transmitting knowledge as well as skills. A vastly larger number of persons can now be benefitted through the use of mass media. The media like TV, films and video, which have hearing and seeing components, can create impact as well as understanding, which is sometimes not possible in a class-room situation. The mere fact of providing illustrations through moving pictures on a TV set or video screen gives to such media great potential.

The role of media in distance education needs a specific mention. It is impIied that teaching is done from a distance. It is also understood that education is imparted through correspondence, audio-visual aids, like radio, television and telephone, besides personal contacts. As against a university, which enrolls students of a similar age, has definite time schedule, and is confined to a geographical area or campus, an ‘open university’ can cater to all kinds of students–of various ages, living in different and even far places, who wish to combine education with employment or work at home. It can provide a great variety of courses. Even the pace of learning would be different for students enrolled in the same course. The Indira Gandhi National Open University is envisaged as an institution for the ‘entire country. One of the principal objectives of this University is to provide education to those who have been denied opportunity for higher education, either because they live in remote and rural areas or because of any other handicap, including financial constraints and family obligations. The ‘study centres’ with audio-videos and library facilities are an important part of the University. Here, students can meet their academic counselor and discuss their difficulties. Support from radio and television is also important in distance learning

The impact of information technology on our traditional communication system has also to be considered. In other words, what impact will the new ‘communication technology have on our traditions and culture? In our country,  traditional forms of communication have been used for such purposes as dispelling superstition, outmoded perceptions and unscientific attitudes. These have been found effective and acceptable to the people because people are familiar with them. Practitioners of the traditional media use a subtle form of persuasion by presenting the message in artistic and yet all too familiar forms. Examples abound where song, drama, dance groups and the like are used to campaign against social evils or for advance in farming, health, nutrition and family welfare.

5.    Write an essay on the scientific possibilities and social realities in context of Agriculture in India. (10)

Answer:    Agriculture in India is livelihood for a majority of the population and can never be underestimated. Although its contribution in the gross domestic product (GDP) has reduced to less than 20 per cent and contribution of other sectors increased at a faster rate, agricultural production has grown. This has made us self-sufficient and taken us from being a begging bowl for food after independence to a net exporter of agriculture and allied products. Total foodgrain production in the country is estimated to be a record 291.95 million tonnes, according to the second advance estimates for 2019-20. This is news to be happy about but as per the estimates of Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR), demand for foodgrain would increase to 345 million tonnes by 2030.

Increasing population, increasing average income and globalisation effects in India will increase demand for quantity, quality and nutritious food, and variety of food. Therefore, pressure on decreasing available cultivable land to produce more quantity, variety and quality of food will keep on increasing.

In spite of all these facts, the average productivity of many crops in India is quite low. The country’s population in the next decade is expected to become the largest in the world and providing food for them will be a very prime issue. Farmers are still not able to earn respectable earnings.

Even after over seven decades of planning since the independence, majority of the farmers are still facing problems of poor production and/or poor returns. Major constraints in Indian agriculture are:

  • According to 2010-11 Agriculture Census, the total number of operational holdings was 138.35 million with average size of 1.15 hectares (ha). Of the total holdings, 85 per cent are in marginal and small farm categories of less than 2 ha (GOI, 2014).
  • Farming for subsistence which makes scale of economy in question with majority of small holdings.
  • Low-access of credit and prominent role of unorganised creditors affecting decisions of farmers in purchasing of inputs and selling of outputs
  • Less use of technology, mechanisation and poor productivity for which first two points are of major concern
  • Very less value addition as compared to developed countries and negligible primary-level processing at farmers
  • Poor infrastructure for farming making more dependence on weather, marketing and supply chain suitable for high value

Future of agriculture is a very important question for the planners and all other stakeholders. Government and other organisations are trying to address the key challenges of agriculture in India, including small holdings of farmers, primary and secondary processing, supply chain, infrastructure supporting the efficient use of resources and marketing, reducing intermediaries in the market. There is a need for work on cost-effective technologies with environmental protection and on conserving our natural resources.

The reforms towards privatisation, liberalisation and globalisation affected inputs market at a faster pace. Agricultural marketing reforms after 2003 made changes in marketing of agricultural outputs by permitting private investment in developing markets, contract farming and futures trading, etc. These amendments in marketing acts have brought about some changes but the rate is less.

Along with this, the information technology revolution in India, new technologies in agriculture, private investments especially on research and development, government efforts to rejuvenate the cooperative movement to address the problems of small holdings and small produce etc are changing face of agriculture in India. Many startups in agriculture by highly educated young ones show that they are able to understand the high potential of putting money and efforts in this sector. Cumulative effects of technology over the next decade will change the face of agriculture.

Advantageous weather and soil conditions, high demand for food, untapped opportunities, various fiscal incentives given by the government for inputs, production infrastructure, availability of cheap credit facilities and for marketing and export promotion are attracting many individuals, big companies, startups and entrepreneurial ventures to do a lot of investments on innovations, inventions, research and development and on other aspects of business.

The efforts are being done to convert all the challenges in agriculture into opportunities and this process is the future of agriculture.

Key trends expected


  1. Changing demand due to increase in incomes, globalisation and health consciousness is   affecting   and   going   to   affect   more   the   production  in  future. Demand for fruits and vegetables, dairy products, fish and meat is going to increase in future.
  2. Researches, technology improvements, protected cultivation of high value greens and other vegetables will be more. There will be more demand of processed and affordable quality
  3. More competition will be there among private companies giving innovative products, better seeds, fertilisers, plant protection chemicals, customised farm machinery and feed for animals etc in cost effective ways at competitive prices giving more returns on investment by
  4. Some technologies will be frequently and widely used in future and some will become common in a short time while some will take time to For producing the same products in other way so as to use resources judiciously and using new resources also like hydroponics, use of plastics and bio-plastics in production
  5. Precision farming with soil testing-based decisions, automation using artificial intelligence will be focused for precise application inputs in agriculture. Sensors and drones will be used for precision, quality, environment in cost effective
  6. Use nano-technology for enhancement of food quality and safety, efficient use of inputs will be in near future. Nano-materials in agriculture will reduce the wastage in use of chemicals, minimise nutrient losses in fertilisation and will be used to increase yield through pest and nutrient management. IFFCO has already done successful tests in nano-fertilisers.
  7. India has improved remarkably in its digital connectivity and market access has become very easy. The number of internet users is projected to reach 666.4 million in
  8. There will certainly be more work by government, village communities, agri startups and private players in conserving sharply depleting water resource. Use of digital technology can make revolution in this
  9. There will be more of niche marketers in operations, area, and crop specific small equipments which will make operations even at small farms easier and
  10. Retailing in agriculture will largely be digitalised. A study estimates that over 90 per cent of kirana stores across the country will be digitalised by 2025 with modern traceable logistics and transparent supply Many players have already taking kiranastores to the door steps of consumers like Amazon and Jio Mart.


6.    Write a detailed note on water and vector born diseases. (10)

Answer: Vector-borne diseases are infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropod species, such as mosquitoes, ticks, triatomine bugs, sandflies, and blackflies. Arthropod vectors are cold-blooded (ectothermic) and thus especially sensitive to climatic factors. Weather influences survival and reproduction rates of vectors, in turn influencing habitat suitability, distribution and abundance; intensity and temporal pattern of vector activity (particularly biting rates) throughout the  year; and rates of development, survival and reproduction of pathogens within  vectors. However, climate is only one of many factors influencing vector  distribution, such as habitat destruction, land use, pesticide application, and host density

Waterborne diseases are conditions (meaning adverse effects on human health, such as death, disability, illness or disorders) caused by pathogenic micro- organisms that are transmitted in water. The study of pathogenic microbes is at the forefront of global focus as an urgent topic of research. These diseases can be spread while bathing, washing, drinking water, or by eating food exposed to contaminated water.They are a pressing issue in rural areas amongst developing countries all over the world. While diarrhea and vomiting are the most commonly reported symptoms of waterborne illness, other symptoms can include skin, ear,  respiratory, or eye problems. Waterborne diseases are impacted by a country’s economy and also impact the economy by being costly to deal with.

7.    How mineral resources can be made sustainably available? Elucidate. (10) Answer:   Measures to conserve minerals resources are as follows:

  • Use of minerals in a planned and sustainable manner, recycling of


  • Use of alternative renewable


  • Improvising the technology so that low-grade ores can be used


  • By re-using, recuperating, and recycling methods, materials can be manufactured from minerals, and by replacing other materials as well. In many cases, the cost of recuperating and recycling is much higher than continuing to extract and process At hand is a lot of material available on which how metals can be recycled and why others aren’t.


  • To find out new areas of minerals, one can always do innovative explorations for finding out the locations with the help of latest technology. In case of the India sea floor, explora¬tion and mining may yield good dividend.


  • To reduce transport cost, processing plants should invariably be coated in mining For weighty materials like coal, it is better to convert it into coking coal or in electricity near the pit heads.


  • People can conserve mineral resources by utilizing renewable resources. For example, using hydroelectricity and solar power as sources of energy may conserve mineral resources such as


  • There is a great scope for the expansion of several mineral-based industries which open the new vista for economic


  • Mineral resources may also be conserved through recycling. A good example is recycling of scrap


  • One should make use of new technological methods of mining. Training of miners can be very helpful in conserving mineral resources by ensuring minimal wastage during the For e.g. minerals include iron, oil, copper, salt, gold and lead.


  • Substitution, one of the important way to conserve some minerals. One can substitute plentiful resources for scarce ones. Mineral resources that require a small amount of power during refining, such as aluminium, should be


  • We know that refining activities and mining always have negative effects on the It includes the destruction of habitat land, air and water pollution. These negative impacts can be minimized through the conservation of mineral resources.

8.    Explain the formation of solar system. (10)

Answer:    The formation of the Solar System began about 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud. Most of the collapsing mass collected in the center, forming the Sun, while the rest flattened into a protoplanetary disk out of which the planets, moons, asteroids, and other small Solar System bodies formed. This model, known as the nebular hypothesis, was first developed in   the   18th   century   by Emanuel Swedenborg, Immanuel Kant, and Pierre-Simon Laplace. Its subsequent development   has    interwoven    a    variety    of    scientific    disciplines including astronomy, chemistry, geology, physics, and planetary science. Since the dawn of the space age in the 1950s and the discovery of extrasolar planets in the 1990s, the model has been both challenged and refined to account for new observations. The Solar System has evolved considerably since its initial formation. Many moons have formed from circling discs of gas and dust around their parent planets, while other moons are thought to have formed independently  and later to have been captured by their planets. Still others, such as Earth’s Moon, may be the result of giant collisions. Collisions between bodies have occurred continually up to the present day and have been central to the evolution of the Solar System. The positions of the planets might have shifted due to gravitational interactions. This planetary migration is now thought to have been responsible for much of the Solar System’s early evolution.

In roughly 5 billion years, the Sun will cool and expand outward to many times its current diameter (becoming a red giant), before casting off its outer layers as a planetary nebula and leaving behind a stellar remnant known as a white dwarf. In the far distant future, the gravity of passing stars will gradually reduce the Sun’s retinue of planets. Some planets will be destroyed, others ejected into interstellar space. Ultimately, over the course of tens of billions of years, it is likely that the Sun will be left with none of the original bodies in orbit around it

9.    Explain the Theory of Chemical Evolution on scientific basis. (10)

Answer:   In other words, to understand the problem of origin of life, one must have a knowledge of the origin of ‘organic molecules’ on the earth. In the early stages of its development, with the hot gases condensing and molten matter which was solidifying to form what are rocks, today, the Earth acted as the huge factory, producing many kinds of compounds. The sources of energy available for the  formation of numerous type of molecules were cosmic rays, ultraviolet radiations, electrical discharges such as lightning, radioactivity, and heat from volcanoes and hot springs. Molecules of all sorts were being continuously created and destroyed due to their state of agitation. The lighter gases of the atmosphere such as hydrogen, helium, oxygen, nitrogen, etc.. escaped into space unless they could combine with other elements to form liquids or solids. In such cases they remained on the earth. In particular, oxygen could not remain as free oxygen. It combined  with other elements to form compounds. For example, hydrogen and oxygen  combined to form water vapour, and remained in the Earth’s atmosphere.

Similarly, oxygen combined with calcium and carbon to form calcium carbonate,

i.e. limestone. Again, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen combined together to form  ammonium nitrate. Compounds of carbon and hydrogen were also formed  sometimes along with nitrogen or oxygen. These compounds are, today, called “organic compounds”.

The Earth had at the same time started cooling down. As the Earth cooled sufficiently, torrential and prolonged rains were caused due to condensation of steam. The rains began to accumulate in the depressions on the earth and so the oceans were formed. These hot bodies of water contained abundant and varied organic compounds washed down from the atmosphere. Continued interaction  among these compounds in the warm waters resulted in the formation of yet more  compounds. The waters of this stage of the Earth’s development have been referred to as “hot dilute soup”, which amongst other things also contained “amino acids” having a composition of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. The molecules of amino acids combined together to form large cuinplex molecules, the “proteins” which are the building blocks of life.

10.     Make a table showing protein and energy contents of ten common foods. (10)


  1. Egg :Protein:                              5g               Energy:       324       Kj


  1. Lentil: Protein                           18g                    Energy:      962      Kj


  1. Pumpkin: Protein:                        12g                  Energy:      1192      Kj


  1. Almong: Protein:                           20g              Energy:       2503      kj


  1. Peanut: Protein:                         7g                   Energy:      3400      kj


  1. Cottage Cheese        Protein:       5g                Energy:       560        Kj


  1. Greek Yougurt:      Protein:      10g                    Energy:      600      Kj


  1. Pea: Protein:                              8g              Energy            782    Kj


  1. Milk: Protein:                    10g                   Energy               890           Kj


  1. Fish: Protein:                 15g                    Energy:                    780 Kj



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