You are currently viewing IGNOU BPCE 17 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2022-23






Course Code: BPCE-017
Assignment Code: BPCE-017/ASST/TMA/2022-23
Marks: 100
NOTE: All questions are compulsory.


Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 marks
1. Define counseling. Describe the characteristics of a counseling relationship. Explain the
barriers to communication in counseling.
2. Explain Rogers person centred approach to counseling.
3. Describe the theories of family counseling.
Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5 x 5 = 25
4. Explain the core conditions of counseling.
5. Describe the problem identification and exploration stage in counseling.
6. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of direct and indirect approaches to counseling.
7. Explain the structure of personality as given by Freud.
8. Explain transference and counter transference in counseling relationship.
Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10 x 3 = 30 marks
9. Therapeutic climate
10. Exceptions to confidentiality
11. Importance of non-verbal communication in counseling
12. The oral stage
13. Reaction formation
14. Bibliotherapy
15. Genogram
16. Marital schism and marital skew
17. Technique of behavior exchange
18. Advantages of group counseling




(BPCE 017)


Course Code: BPCE-017 Assignment Code: BPCE-017/ASST/TMA/2022-23

Marks: 100


NOTE: All questions are compulsory.


Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 marks

1.  Define counseling. Describe the characteristics of a counseling relationship. Explain the barriers to communication in counseling.

Ans. counselling is a talking therapy that allows people to discuss their problems with trained


3 Characteristics of Counseling

Counseling is a process between a client and therapist to explore difficulties, learn to see things clearly, and facilitate positive change (Sexton, 1996).

The process is built on a relationship of trust, confidentiality, and mutual respect. The practice of counseling has roots in humanistic, behavioral, and cognitive traditions. All of which are also seen and utilized in positive psychology.

There is plenty of research to support practical approaches to counseling. The term “best

practices” signifies that empirical evidence supports the effectiveness of specific approaches

and techniques.

Evidence-based counseling supports both the art/science and the research/practice components of the field. Research clearly supports the benefits of individual, group, and family counseling for a wide variety of issues. It is specifically important to match certain client problems with specific counseling approaches to obtain the best outcome (Sexton, 1996).

Theoretical orientation and effective counseling

A few common factors of effective counseling matter a great deal more than the specific theoretical orientation. Theoretical orientations can, however, emphasize the environment/background, emotions, behavior, or thoughts.


Psychoanalysis, as well as Jungian and Adlerian psychology, are theoretical orientations that emphasize background.

Emotion-based theoretical approaches are Rogerian (or person-centered psychology), existential psychology, and gestalt therapy.

Cognitive therapy and rational-emotive behavioral therapy focus on thoughts.

Approaches that focus on thoughts and behaviors include Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, and solution-focused brief therapy.

Common factors

Lambert (1991) found that 30% of effective counseling outcomes come from “common factors”

– 15% from the client’s expectations and 15% from specific psychological techniques.

The common factors can be broken down into three broad areas:

The value of learning or psychoeducation. This is done through affective experiencing, correcting emotional experiences, and skill acquisition.

The supportive value of a collaborative counseling relationship, or what Carl Rogers called the therapeutic alliance.

Action occurs through behavior change, creating successful experiences, behavior regulation, and proficiency.


Psychoeducation is the process of providing information to individuals in therapy.

When people understand mental health conditions, the benefits of specific treatments, and research supporting coping techniques, they develop an internal locus of control to work toward mental and emotional wellbeing.

Most clients have little knowledge about mental and emotional health nor what to expect from therapy. Basic education of mental and emotional issues can lead to a better understanding of how techniques can be implemented to relieve distress and improve overall wellness.

Counselors can provide this education via both a combination of face-to-face teaching and skills-training, as well as by encouraging their clients to engage with psychoeducational interventions in between counseling sessions. In this sense, psychoeducation may serve to supplement and support aspects of the counseling process.

For instance, using a blended care counseling app such as Quenza, counselors can share self- paced reflection exercises, guided audio meditations, and a range of other activities with their clients digitally. Clients can complete these at their own pace using their smartphone or tablet,


potentially having a range of benefits for furthering their learning and progress toward their goals.

One study showed that when psychoeducation was administered to patients with schizophrenia, it helped reduce hospitalization rates and decreased the number of days the patient spent in the hospital (Bauml, Frobose, Kraemer, Rentrop, & Pitschel-Walz, 2006).

Therapeutic alliance

Carl Rogers outlined the factors necessary for developing the therapeutic alliance in 1957. Rogers (1957) states that a counselor must be genuinely engaged in the therapeutic relationship, have unconditional positive regard, feel empathy, and communicate these attitudes.

The therapeutic alliance is also described as the relational factor in counseling that includes goal consensus, collaboration of counseling-related tasks, and emotional bonding (Meyers, 2014). The first impression and early formation of the therapeutic alliance has been shown to be one of the most significant predictors of psychotherapy success (Horvath, 2001).

This positive bond involves mutual trust, liking, respect, and caring and includes establishing goals for therapy that both parties are equally committed to achieving. It creates a sense of shared responsibility and investment in the process.

Additionally, Hill and Knox (2001) explain that this relationship evolves as a counselor uses appropriate techniques that intensify client engagement, increase therapist influence, and thereby strengthen the alliance. Supportive and engaging procedures allow the client to become more involved in the process.

Behavior change

Behavior change is a critical component of the counseling process. Creating a strategy for behavior change is a crucial component of every established type of therapy, including CBT, person-centered therapy, and even psychoanalysis (Schuller, 2009).

Behavior change can be accomplished through emotional arousal, commitment, and environmental regulation.

Consciousness raising is a great starting point for clients. This approach invites clients to explore where they are, how their actions and attitudes influence their emotions and health, and what they want to become.

Another effective way to create behavior change is self-reevaluation. Examining a client’s core

beliefs with this core belief worksheet is an excellent way to begin self-reevaluation.

Effective counselling requires good communication but there are potential barriers to communication in counselling such as:


lack of understanding of what counselling is

personal pride (the potential client feeling it should be possible to sort out their own difficulties)

denial/distortion of problems

preference for a therapist of a particular gender or background

2.  Explain Rogers person centred approach to counseling.

Ans. For some people, an ideal therapeutic approach does not necessarily mean consulting a professional, answering questions that will help them determine what is wrong, and listening to another person advise them on how to work through their struggles. The therapeutic process can also involve a more humanistic approach, where your therapist merely guides your journey of self-discovery and supports you in finding the answers you have been seeking. You are the expert on your own life.

This type of psychotherapy is known as client-centered therapy, and it focuses on maximizing your ability to find your own solutions with the right amount of support. If you are looking for an effective humanistic therapy method to help support your mental health, this type of person-centered approach is an excellent place to start.

What Is Client Centered Therapy?

Client centered therapy, or person centered therapy, is a non-directive approach to talk therapy. It requires the client to actively take the reins during each therapy session, while the therapist acts as a guide or a source of support for the client. “Person centered therapy allows the client to steer the ship. There is no agenda, no rush,” says Talk space therapist Catherine Richardson, MA, LPC, EMDR. This person-centered approach supports mental health by coming from a place of empathy during each counseling session.

The concept of client centered therapy might seem like a stretch — after all, most kinds

of humanistic counseling essentially focus on the client. What sets this type of therapy apart, however, is that it centers the client in a more positive and inclusive manner, providing deeper insight into the difficult situation they are facing while also maximizing their ability to resolve it on their own. This type of talk therapy supports a therapeutic process that encourages positive change within the client. In the 1930s, American psychologist Carl Rogers developed client centered therapy to serve as a contrast to the practice of psychoanalysis, which was

widespread at the time. Rogers believed that no other person’s ideas could be as valid as one’s individual experience, and that exploring these experiences in a supportive, non-judgmental environment is necessary to achieve a positive therapy experience.

Rogers’ theories on humanistic psychology gave rise to the client centered approach to psychotherapy, known as Rogerian therapy. Rogers used the term “client” rather than “patient” to promote equality in the therapist-client relationship. Traditionally, there was a power


imbalance in the therapeutic relationship between the therapist and the patient, but client centered therapy emphasizes that the client’s experience is just as valid as a professional’s insight, and therefore the two parties in the therapeutic relationship should be viewed as equals.

How Does Client Centered Therapy Work?

Client centered therapy requires the therapist to focus on the client’s needs. Rather than giving an in-depth analysis of the client’s difficulties or blaming the client’s present thoughts and behaviors on past experiences, the person-centered therapist listens to the client and provides a conducive environment for them to make decisions independently. It also means that the person-centered therapist avoids judging the client for any reason and accepts them fully. This lack of judgment is a quality known in this field as “unconditional positive regard.”

The practice of client centered therapy requires the person-centered counseling therapist to understand how the world works from the client’s point of view. Therefore, they may ask questions for clarification when in doubt about something their client shared.

According to the client centered theory, a negative and indirect approach makes a client more conscious of those parts of themselves that they were previously in denial about. When the therapist responds to the client’s feelings and brings a level of empathy to each therapy session, it brings those parts into focus, but when there is little or no intrusion, the client is free to make decisions independently without making the therapist the center of their thoughts and feelings.

Client centered therapy does not particularly aim to solve specific problems or relieve symptoms, but to help the client get rid of the idea or feeling that they are being influenced by external factors beyond their control. The goals of this practice include increasing self- awareness, improving the client’s ability to use self-direction to make desired changes, increasing clarity, improving self-esteem, and boosting the client’s self-reliance.

Therapists who practice Carl Rogers’ person centered therapy should exhibit three essential qualities: genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathetic understanding.


Open communication between the client-centered approach therapist and client should be established, where the client centered therapist feels comfortable sharing their feelings with the client. This will similarly encourage the client to share their own feelings and engage in honest conversations.

Unconditional positive regard

Carl Rogers believed that offering people conditional support often makes them develop further problems, and therefore, the client centered therapist should create a climate of


unconditional positive regard, where the client is free to express their thoughts and feelings without fear of judgement.

Empathetic understanding

Empathy is a key quality in client centered therapy. It fosters a positive relationship between the counseling therapist and client and represents a mirror that reflects the client’s thoughts and emotions to help them gain more insight INTO the situation they are struggling with and into themselves.

3.  Describe the theories of family counseling.

Ans. Family therapy is a form of therapy in which an entire family is engaged in therapy to reach a group resolution rather than an individual seeking out personalized therapy plans. Family therapy can be engaged when an entire family’s dynamic has grown problematic or may be enlisted to help when a single family member’s behavior or struggles have created familial discord. So, what exactly is family therapy?


Family therapy is any form of therapy that enlists an entire family as a client rather than a single person. Family therapies can all look quite different from one another, both in terms of what is worked on during therapy sessions and the manner of delivery. Some family therapy sessions require that all family members be present during a session, while others might intentionally splice and separate family members throughout treatment. Some therapies focus on parent- child engagement and interactions. In contrast, others focus on each family member to treat individual concerns before bringing the family together for treatment.

Family therapy seeks to treat a family unit to improve communication, relations, and dynamics within a family, to create a harmonious home life. Family therapy is most engaged when children are still in the home, but people of all ages and home lives may come into family therapy and benefit from the tenets it has to offer. Family therapy is a form of therapy

treats relationships

that                                  without focusing on a romantic relationship.


Family therapy theories function as the basis from which all family therapy modalities spring. Theories are used to identify the most effective forms of treatment, whether that means engaging a family as a single unit, separating a family to treat individual issues, or treating a family through different lenses depending on the day, tackling situations and issues as they arise.

Some family therapy theories see families as a small society. There are specific, unique roles and relationships, and deviating from these roles and relationships is the greatest source of conflict or contention. Within this theory, mental health professionals work to restore some


sense of equilibrium, allowing each family member to return to the role they are best suited to and re-instilling the family with a sense of peace and order.

Other family therapy theorists view the family unit as just that: a single unit with working parts that must all work toward the same goal. In this theory, families are regarded as one “person” during treatment, which allows each of the members of the family to have equal time and importance in sessions, and encourages each of the family members to support and uplift one another, just as you would support all pieces of your own body; after all, you are unlikely to value an arm over a leg, so why would you value one member of the family over another?


There are five widely recognized family therapy modalities: Structural Therapy, Milan therapy, Strategic Therapy, Narrative Therapy, and Transgenerational Therapy. These forms of therapy seek to improve familial relationships and create a more stable, healthy life at home.

Structural Therapy is the most popular form of family therapy and sees the family as a unit with multiple functioning pieces. Each person in the family has a specific role that they fulfill and deviating from these roles is the greatest source of conflict within a family. Therapy, then, seeks to check out any reason for the upset in familial roles and works on integrating everyone back into the roles they were originally intended to fulfill. This modality works to evenly distribute power, communication, and respect, to move forward as a single, functional system.


Milan Therapy

is similar because it views a family as a single system, with a series of symbiotic systems embedded within it. It differs from Structural Therapy, though. It focuses far more on the natural behaviors within a family and seeks to guide those natural behaviors, focusing on reactions and feedback. Family members are encouraged to listen and respond carefully to one another while allowing each other to have their own lives and functions.

Strategic Family Therapy

focuses far more on patterns within families and less on viewing the family unit differently. As its name suggests, a strategic approach allows therapists and family members to engage in more hands-on approaches to conflict resolution. Both are instructed to focus on any patterns of behavior that have emerged or developed over time and attempt to intercept and redirect these patterns actively.


Narrative Therapy

is the most individualistic of the family therapy modalities and focuses on supporting and encouraging each family member. This modality operates under the notion that individuals being at their absolute best and believing in their power will create the greatest, most effective family dynamics. Conflict resolution is a simple matter of improving self-esteem and self-perception.

Transgenerational Therapy does exactly what it seems: it works on the conflicts between different generations by breaking down any communication barriers that exist and cultivating understanding, despite different mores or expectations. This modality suggests that most


familial conflicts come from the differences between generational behaviors and expectations, and soothing these differences is a simple matter of improving communication and encouraging open-minded attitude.



Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5 x 5 = 25 marks

4.  Explain the core conditions of counseling.

Ans. The core conditions were identified by Carl Rogers who founded Person-Centred Therapy. The core conditions are:

Empathy Congruence and

Unconditional Positive Regard (UPR)

Rogers first wrote about the core conditions in 1957 in his paper “The Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Therapeutic Personality Change”.

In the 1957 paper, Rogers identified 6 conditions that he viewed as necessary and sufficient to facilitate change within a client. Rogers hypothesized that if the client experienced these ‘conditions’ from the counsellor, a therapeutic relationship would develop and the process of therapeutic change start to begin.

The 3 Core Conditions are:


The first condition is called empathy, sometimes referred to as a frame of reference.

The counsellor tries to understand the thoughts and the feelings as the client experiences them, sometimes referred to as ‘walking in someone else’s shoes.’

Try this experiment: with a friend, look at the same object or the view out of the window. Do you see the same thing?

Probably not.

The reason is that we all have our own perception of the world.


The second condition is known as congruence. This means the counsellor is genuine and real.

This condition is important as it allows the client to build a trusting relationship with the counsellor.


The counsellor’s congruence can also help defeat negative attitudes or conditions of worth that others may have placed on the client.

The counsellor’s warm and genuine approach allows the client to feel valued. This in turn builds self-esteem and trust in their own judgement.

Unconditional Positive Regard (UPR)

The third condition is known as unconditional positive regard or UPR for short.

Unconditional positive regard allows the client to open and speak about their difficulties without fear of being criticized or judged.

For a client, it can be a relief to talk about their problems without someone saying, ‘Why did

you do this?’ or ‘Do you think that was a good idea?’

All counsellors – even those who do not practice person-centred therapy –use the ‘core conditions’ as the base for their practice.

The Other 3 Conditions in Person Centred Therapy

The 6 Conditions: The 3 Core Conditions and the 3 Hidden Conditions

The first three conditions are empathy, congruence, and unconditional positive regard. These first three conditions are called the core conditions, sometimes referred to as the ‘facilitative conditions’ or the ‘therapist’s conditions.

In other words, they are the conditions that the therapist needs to transmit to the client for the therapy to work.

5.  Describe the problem identification and exploration stage in counseling.

Ans. According to G. Egan, G. (1986) successful counselling can be seen as a three stage process

  • Exploration: the client clarifies his/her understanding of the problems that have brought him/her to counselling. The client explores and clarifies problems. The counselor helps the client tell his or her story, focusing and clarifying as well as pointing out blind spots and helping to generate new
  • Planning: he develops strategies to improve his situation. The client develops a plan for The client imagines a new scenario and develops goals to achieve it. The counselor encourages a commitment to change.
  • Action: he takes concrete steps to achieve measurable change. The client moves toward the preferred scenario. The counsellor helps the client develop strategies for action and encourages him or her to implement plans and achieve


Fuster (2005), while presenting the Carkuff’s models of counselling has presented the counselling process in five stages as attending, responding, personalizing, initiating, and evaluating. He has also given the details of attitudes and skills required of the counselor at each stage. In literature about counselling, one also finds the process comprising of four stages as initial interview, the assessment, the middle phase, and the termination. The counselling process is discussed based on the stages mentioned above.

6.  Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of direct and indirect approaches to counseling. Ans. Disadvantages of Direct vs. Indirect Cash Flow

Although the two methods are similar in concept, the methods have some distinct advantages and disadvantages. The direct method uses the accrual basis of accounting, while the indirect method uses the cash basis.

Organizations opt to use the indirect method, as it correlates with the general ledger and is more accurate than the former. The disadvantages of the direct method, however, are outweighed by the benefits that it offers.

The direct method of cash flow relies on the balance sheet data of a business. By determining the total cash spent on operating activities, it can determine the cash needed for investments, payroll, and other overhead responsibilities.

On the other hand, the indirect method relies on an individual’s estimates of long-term cash flow. For this reason, companies may choose one over the other based on their needs.

The main difference between the two methods lies in how they determine net income. With the indirect method, net income is converted into cash flow by subtracting non-cash transactions.

In contrast, the direct method relies on actual cash transactions to derive a cash flow statement. This method also requires less preparation time, but the accuracy of the calculation is significantly lower. It also requires more work than the indirect method.

The Benefits of Direct vs Indirect Cash Flow

If you must choose between a direct cash flow statement and an indirect cash-flow statement, you should understand how to read both. Both methods will show you the same data, but there are some differences.

The direct method focuses on operating assets while the indirect method focuses on liabilities. To determine which one to use, you can add or subtract operating assets and liabilities. You can also view net income by subtracting expenses.

When comparing direct and indirect methods, look at the amount of money you have received and spent during the period. This method will make sense if you itemize all expenses and


revenues. Either way, both will show you how much cash you have earned, lost, or invested. But it is important to note that the direct method will give you a better understanding of your business’ cash position.

Choosing between a direct and indirect cash flow statement depends on the business’s needs. For larger organizations, the indirect method is more suitable, as it involves fewer accounting records. The direct method is better for smaller companies because it offers more transparency into operating cash flow details and can help determine short-term cash availability planning needs. Regardless of how you decide to present your financial information, an accurate cash flow statement will give you the ultimate flexibility to run your business responsibly.

7.  Explain the structure of personality as given by Freud. Ans. The Structure of Personality: Id, Ego, and Superego:

Freud suggested that personality consists of three parts- the id, the ego, and the superego. The id consists of all our primitive, innate urges. These include various bodily needs, sexual desire, and aggressive impulses. According to Freud, the id is unconscious and operates in accordance with what he termed the pleasure principle: It demands immediate, total gratification and is not capable of considering the potential costs of seeking this goal.

Unfortunately, the world offers few opportunities for instant pleasure. Moreover, attempting to gratify many of our innate urges would soon get us into serious trouble. It is in response to these facts that the second structure of personality, the ego, develops. The ego’s task is to hold the id in check until conditions allow for satisfaction of its impulses.

Thus, the ego operates in accordance with the reality principle- It considers external conditions and the consequences of various actions and directs behavior to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. The ego is partly conscious but not entirely so; thus, some of its actions for example, its eternal struggle with the id is outside our conscious knowledge or understanding.

The final aspect of personality described by Freud is the superego. It too seeks to control satisfaction of id impulses; but, in contrast to the ego, it is concerned with morality with whether various ways that could potentially satisfy id impulses are right or wrong. The superego permits us to gratify such impulses only when it is morally correct to do so not simply when it is safe or feasible, as required by the ego.

The superego is acquired from our parents and through experience and represents our internalization of the moral teachings and norms of our society. Unfortunately, such teachings are often quite inflexible and leave little room for gratification of our basic desires they require us to be good all the time.

Because of this fact, the ego faces another difficult task: It must strike a balance between our primitive urges (the id) and our learned moral constraints (the superego). Freud felt that this


constant struggle among id, ego, and superego plays a key role in personality and in many psychological disorders.

Moreover, he suggested that the struggle was often visible in everyday behavior in what have come to be known as Freudian slips—errors in speech that reflect unconscious impulses that have “gotten by” the ego or superego. An example- “She was tempting … I mean attempting to….” According to Freud, the word tempting reveals an unacceptable sexual impulse.

8.  Explain transference and counter transference in counseling relationship.

Ans. Transference is the redirection of feelings about a specific person onto someone else (in therapy, this refers to a client’s projection of their feelings about someone else onto their therapist). Countertransference is the redirection of a therapist’s feelings toward the client.

What is Transference?

Transference is the redirection of feelings about a specific person onto someone else (in therapy, this refers to a client’s projection of their feelings about someone else onto their therapist).

Dede Kammerling, an NYC therapist and My Wellbeing community member, explains this

dynamic: “For example, a patient who has lost a parent as a child looks to the therapist for unconditional love and acceptance. And while the therapist genuinely cares for her patient, it may not feel like enough. The therapist will inevitably fall short of what his/her patient believes he/she needs and insists on. The patient feels hurt, angry and deeply disappointed.”


Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10 x 3 = 30 marks

9.  Therapeutic climate

Ans. Postacute stroke rehabilitation may be either in in- or outpatient rehabilitation clinics, skilled nursing facilities or community based. Therapy intensity is important but may depend on availability of resources and comorbidity of the patient. Further differences in national legislation, heath care regulation and reimbursements policies may explain differences between countries and even outcomes. This chapter highlights the differences between skilled nursing facilities, rehabilitation centers and the importance of a dedicated interdisciplinary stroke rehabilitation team.

10.  Exceptions to confidentiality

Ans. When the information is public knowledge:

Let us try to understand this with an example. In the matter of American Express Bank Ltd. v. Ms. Priya Puri, the bank had filed a suit against their ex-employee for breach of the confidentiality clause by sharing information of potential customers with competitors.


However, the bank failed to prove its case, because it was held that basic information of these potential clients, was information available in the public domain. Hence, the confidentiality clause signed by the ex-employee protected her from being sued due to the exemptions to confidentiality.

11.  Importance of non-verbal communication in counseling

Ans. Nonverbal communication plays a significant role in our lives, as it can improve a person’s ability to relate, engage, and establish meaningful interactions in everyday life. A better understanding of this type of communication may lead people to develop

stronger relationships with others. Often referred to as body language, nonverbal communication can take many forms and may be interpreted in multiple ways by different people, especially across cultures. Even a lack of such nonverbal cues can be meaningful and a form of nonverbal communication.

12.  The oral stage

Ans. In Freudian psychoanalysis, the term oral stage or hemiataxia denotes the first psychosexual development stage wherein the mouth of the infant is their

primary erogenous zone. Spanning the life period from birth to the age of 18 months, the oral stage is the first of the five Freudian psychosexual development stages: (i) the oral, (ii) the anal,

(iii) the phallic, (iv) the latent, and (v) the genital. Moreover, because it is the infant’s first human relationship—biological (nutritive) and psychological (emotional)—its duration depends


13.  Reaction formation

Ans. In psychoanalytic theory, reaction formation (German: Reaktionsbildung) is a defense mechanism in which emotions and impulses which are anxiety-producing or perceived to be unacceptable are mastered by exaggeration of the directly opposing tendency. The reaction formations belong to Level 3 of neurotic defense mechanisms, which also


14.  Bibliotherapy

Ans. Bibliotherapy (also referred to as book therapy, reading therapy, poetry

therapy or therapeutic storytelling) is a creative arts therapy that involves storytelling or the reading of specific texts. It uses an individual’s relationship to the content of books

and poetry and other written words as therapy. Bibliotherapy partially overlaps with, and is often combined with, writing therapy.

15.  Genogram


Ans. A genogram (also known as a McGoldrick–Gerson study, a Lapidus schematic  or

a family diagram) is a pictorial display of a person’s family relationships and medical history. It goes beyond a traditional family tree by allowing the user to visualize hereditary patterns and psychological factors that punctuate relationships. It can be used to identify repetitive patterns of behavior and to recognize hereditary tendencies.

16.  Marital schism and marital skew

Ans. Marital schism is far more open – yet just as painful. This condition is marked by a poor marital quality, where both people recognize that the marriage is failing. Both people know they are unhappy, yet they remain married out of a perceived benefit to their children. It is certainly true that children often suffer in a divorce. However, this marital condition can be far more harmful to children than a divorce. Over time, the parents reach a level of malcontent


17.  Technique of behavior exchange


Ans. The basic principles of behavior exchange theory are that (a) close relationships are

characterized by interdependent interpersonal transactions (behavioral exchanges) between

people, (b) these exchanges provide rewards and costs for each person, and (c) people weigh
the ratio of rewards and costs against alternative relationships to determine whether to
continue or dissolve the relationship. Based on these ideas, it follows that satisfying and stable

relationships will contain behavioral exchanges marked by favorable reward-cost ratios for each member of the relationship.

18.  Advantages of group counseling

Ans. Students can discuss issues with their peers, who may better understand student issues.

Students can learn from others who have similar problems. Another student in the group may have gone through a similar situation and can offer support.

Students can gain multiple perspectives from other group members. Other group members can provide guidance about the situation.

Students can pick up new skills that they can use in their daily lives, including social and interpersonal skills, which will help create and sustain strong relationships.





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