You are currently viewing IGNOU BPCE 13 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2022-23



Course Code: BPCE13
Assignment Code: BPCE 13/ASST/TMA/2022-23
Marks: 100
NOTE: All Questions Are Compulsory




Section A
Answer the following question in about 1000 words each: Marks
1. Define motivation and discuss the characteristics and theories of motivation.

Abraham Lincoln, until past forty, was a failure in almost all activities he undertook. When asked about the change he said, ‘My father taught me to work but did not teach me to love my work. I hit that accidentally, when I was past forty’. This ‘love or will to do’ (called motivation) depends on the strength of people’s motives. Motives are the expressed needs and could be conscious or subconscious. They are always directed towards goals.

Motivating people to perform better and thus to achieve organizational objectives has been the great­est challenge to managers. Why do some people perform better than others? Why does the same person act differently at different times? These and many other questions related to work performance have been confronting managers continuously.

Motivating people to perform, higher than their normal physical and mental capacities, and to keep them satisfied is a very complex function of management.

Definition of Motivation:

Motivation is an inspirational process which impels the members of the team to pull their weight effec­tively to give their loyalty to the group, to carry out the tasks properly that they have accepted, and generally to play an effective part in the job that the group has undertaken.

In the words of Michael Jucious, ‘motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to get a desired course of action, to push the right button to get a desired reaction’.

S. Zedeek and M. Blood define, ‘Motivation is a predisposition to act in a specific goal-directed way’.


Following are the importance of motivation in an organization:

1. Greater efficiency:

Motivation enhances the efficiency of the employees and of organization. When employees are motivated, they can perform with commitment and dedication.

2. Reduction in absenteeism and labour turnover:

Motivated employees may not remain absent or leave the organization. They develop a sense of belonging towards the organization and thus improve their overall performance.

3. Team spirit:

Motivation improves team spirit of employees, and this improves the work environ­ment and the overall performance of the employee and the organization.

4. Reduction in wastages and breakages:

Motivated employees take great care in handling machines and other resources. This will reduce wastages and breakages, thus resulting in higher benefits to the organization.

5. Cordial relations:

Motivation enables cordial and healthy relationship in the organization. Moti­vation helps reduce labour grievances and disputes. It ensures sound relations between the man­agement and the labour. It improves the overall efficiency of the organization.

6. Promotion of innovation:

Motivated employees use their initiative to find out innovative ways in the performance of their operations. Such employees are more creative and help the organization to gain the competitive advantage.

7. Optimum use of resources:

Motivation leads to greater employee involvement and lesser wast­ages. This leads to optimum utilization of resources.

8. Corporate image:

Motivated employees are more loyal to the organization. They work with a sense of commitment and dedication. This improves the overall performance of the employee, which enables better results for the company. This results in better relations with all the stakeholders.

Characteristics/Features of Motivation:

1. Interaction between the individual and the situation:

Motivation is not a personal trait but an interaction between the individual and the situation.

2. Goal-directed behaviour:

Motivation leads to an action that is goal oriented. Motivation leads to accomplishment of organizational goals and satisfaction of personal needs.

3. Systems oriented:

Motivation is influenced by two forces:

a. Internal forces:

These forces are internal to the individual, i.e., their needs, wants and nature.

b. External forces:

These forces are external to the individual, which may be organizational related such as management philosophy, organizational structure, and superior-subordinate relationship, and also the forces found in the external environment such as culture, customs, religion and values.

4. Positive or negative:

Positive motivation or the carrot approach offers positive incentives such as appreciation, promotion, status and incentives. Negative motivation or stick approach emphasizes penalties, fines and punishments.

5. Dynamic and complex in nature:

Human behaviour is highly complex, and it becomes extremely difficult to understand people at work. Motivation is a dynamic and complex process.


2. Describe the physiological basis of emotion


Gavin described what had happened, describing how he had climbed the slope where he had carried his grandfather and had severe cuts to his barefoot. He credited adrenaline with helping him endure the discomfort of the cuts. Despite the intense emotions he was feeling, he was capable of learning to operate on the site and make it up the three-kilometer slope to fetch aid after discovering an old truck with the keys in the ignition. Gavin cited his experience operating a dirt bike as an asset, saying, “I knew that clutch in the meant drive.” According to Vern, the small youngster was “tenacious” and composed during the incident. Stories like Gavin’s are uncommon and unpredictably strange. In this circumstance, Gavin’s ability to control his emotions, recognize them, and stop panicking was crucial to his actions.


Affect is the feeling or emotion that is experienced. Because it is so prevalent daily, affect is a crucial component of psychological research. We will see that affect influences both our physical and mental well-being as well as how we act and how we make decisions. Emotions and motivation are the effect’s two primary constituents. These two terms share a Latin root, “to move.” Emotions and motivations entail arousal, or our perceptions of the physical reactions produced by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, in contrast to cognitive processes, which are usually calm, collected, and logical. Emotions and motivations are “hot” because they include arousal; they “charge,” “drive,” or “move” our behavior.

We perceive experiences when we have strong emotions or motivations. The sympathetic nervous system gives us the energy to react to our surroundings when we become aroused. Our pupils enlarge to improve vision, our pulse beats faster, our respiration quickens, and we sweat profusely to cool the body. The liver releases more sugar into the bloodstream, and Epinephrine and norepinephrine, the stress hormones, are released. These reactions cause arousal in humans.

Physiological and Psychological Basis of Emotion

Emotions are mental and physical states of feeling that control our attention and behavior. Emotions influence our behavior, whether it is a pleasure of a roller coaster that causes an unanticipated scream, the blush of shame after a public slip-up, or the terror of a probable plane accident that prompts a pilot to react extraordinarily well. Emotions typically play an adaptive role. For example, we care for children because we love them, and we avoid turning into a congested highway out of dread that a speeding driver may harm us. However, emotions can sometimes be harmful, as when an unpleasant event prompts us to strike out at someone who does not deserve it.

Everyone has experienced the sensation of having their heart race due to fear. The autonomic nervous system’s response to the emotion we are experiencing is responsible for this physiological response. Our fight-or-flight response is regulated by the autonomic nerve system, which also manages our uncontrollable physical reactions. Many psychologists believe that emotion has likely aided human evolution and survival throughout history because of our physiological reactions.

Psychological Responses

The real manifestation of the feeling is the behavioral response component of the emotional response. Behavioral responses can take many forms, depending on the individual’s personality and societal conventions, including a grin, a frown, a laugh, or a sigh. Numerous studies contend that many facial expressions, such as a frown to denote sadness, are universal; nevertheless, social standards and personal nurture influence our behavioral reactions.

According to studies, facial expressions that most closely match the emotion being experienced by the person are demonstrated to produce the largest autonomic physiological responses. Smiling, laughing, and letting out unpleasant emotions positively have advantages. Emotion is demonstrated to be more than a state of mind by its physiological and behavioral responses. Our health and overall disposition are both impacted by emotion.

Physiological and Psychological Basis of Motivation

A motive is an impetus that starts and guides behavior. Some motives, like the desire for food, water, and sex, are biological. However, several additional internal and external factors can affect behavior, such as the need for acceptance and approval from others, the desire to succeed, and the decision to take or not take risks. In each scenario, we act on our motives because they are satisfying.

Motivation can be thought of as a set of behavioral patterns that prompt us to make efforts to tame our desires and achieve our objectives by contrasting our current situation with the desired outcome. The body works to maintain homeostasis, the normal state of its systems, with goals, urges, and arousal in balance, much like a thermostat on an air conditioner. The thermostat activates when a desire or goal is sparked, such as when we become hungry and begin to act in ways that try to quell the drive or accomplish the objective (in this case, to seek food). The thermostat keeps checking to see if the target end condition has been attained as the body moves toward it. We eventually eat, which satisfies the need or objective, and the appropriate behaviors are stopped. The body’s thermostat constantly monitors homeostasis and is prepared to respond to changing conditions.

Physiological Bases of Motivation

Basic physiological requirements include hunger, thirst, and the desire to avoid discomfort. These emotions are present from the moment of birth and are all controlled by our body’s internal systems. The significance of homeostasis, or the mechanisms our body employs to maintain the equilibrium and stability of our internal systems (such as temperature regulation), as well as our body’s natural inclinations across the day, is emphasized by motivation theories that emphasize physiological needs (like our circadian rhythm).

Drive reduction theory is one motivation theory rooted in physiological demands that contend that motivation derives from a desire to lessen inner strife, which is a sign from the body that something has gone wrong. We need to do action to survive. For instance, our body secretes hormones throughout the day, making us feel hungry, and we eat a pizza to quell our hunger, which helps our body’s balance return. Like when we have a stomach ache, we take medication to lessen the pain we experience, our body is informing us that something is wrong, and we need to take action to correct it.

Psychological Bases

Cognitive dissonance theory, which claims that when there are notable discrepancies between what we consider or believe and how people behave, we feel insecure or dissatisfied, is one hypothesis that focuses on psychological requirements. We desire to alter our conduct to feel better because we are uncomfortable. For instance, lying would likely cause us to feel extremely uneasy, apprehensive, and unhappy if we think lying is bad and makes us a horrible person. Until we changed our behavior and did something more compatible with our values and thoughts, including expressing the truth, we would continue to feel uncomfortable. We will feel elated, and our nervousness will disappear after we reveal the truth. Our desire to alter our conduct to feel better because we are uncomfortable. For instance, lying would likely cause us to feel extremely uneasy, apprehensive, and unhappy if we think lying is bad and makes us a horrible person. Until we changed our behavior and did something more compatible with our values and thoughts, including expressing the truth, we would continue to feel uncomfortable.


Our ideas, emotions, attitudes, aspirations, and self-image constitute the foundation of our psychological requirements. Our mental health, happiness, and ability to achieve mental harmony and balance depend on our ability to meet our psychological requirements. The coexistence of physiological and psychological bases is nearly impossible to ignore when discussing emotional and motivational behavior occurrences.


3. Define stress. Discuss the description and types of stress and stressors.



Stress is the body’s reaction to pressure from a particular situation or event. It can be any- physical, mental, or emotional reaction. Job, family illness, or money troubles are some of the common triggers.

When a human experiences stress, it develops a physical and mental response; this is because the body is designed to experience and react to it. Any stress responses assist the body in a new environment. It can be positive by keeping us alert, motivated and ready to avoid danger. But it’s important to know that stress becomes an issue when stressors continue without relief or periods of relaxation.


types of stress?

There are several kinds of stress, including:

  • acute stress
  • episodic acute stress
  • chronic stress

Acute stress

Everyone has experienced acute stress. It’s the body’s quick reaction to a new and challenging situation. It’s the kind of stress one may experience when escaping an accident.

These incidents of acute stress don’t typically cause any harm. They may even prove to be suitable for a person under certain circumstances. Stressful situations provide the body and brain with the practice of developing the best response to future stressful scenarios.

It’s important to know that severe acute stress is entirely different. This stress, like a life-threatening situation, can lead to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or other mental health problems.

Episodic acute stress

Episodic acute stress is when one has frequent episodes of acute stress. It may occur if a person is often anxious and worried about things they suspect may happen soon. As with severe acute stress, episodic acute stress can affect a person’s physical and mental health.

Chronic stress

When one experiences high-stress levels for an extended period, they have chronic stress. Long-term stress can create a negative impact on a person’s health. It may contribute to the following:

  • anxiety
  • cardiovascular disease
  • depression
  • high blood pressure
  • a weakened immune system

Chronic stress may also lead to frequent ailments such as headaches, an upset stomach, and difficulties sleeping.


Signs of Stress

Stress can be short-term or long-term. Both can lead to a variety of symptoms, but chronic stress can take a serious toll on the body over time and have long-lasting health effects.

Some common signs of stress include:


  • Changes in mood
  • Clammy or sweaty palms
  • Decreased sex drive
  • Diarrhea
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Digestive problems
  • Dizziness
  • Feeling anxious
  • Frequent sickness
  • Grinding teeth
  • Headaches
  • Low energy
  • Muscle tension, especially in the neck and shoulders
  • Physical aches and pains
  • Racing heartbeat
  • Trembling



Section B
Answer the following questions in about 400 words each: Marks
4. Define emotion and discuss the theories of emotion.


Emotion is a complex state of feeling that results in physical and psychological changes that influence thought and behavior. Such feelings include physiological arousal, conscious experiences, and behavioral expressions. Emotionality is associated with a range of psychological phenomena, including temperament, personality, mood, and motivation.

Theories of Emotions

A few theories are discussed in brief here under:

1. James-Lange Theory:

Generally a layman believes that the physiological changes associated with emotion follow the conscious experience of the individual. Accordingly, we cry because we are sad, we run because we are afraid, we fight because we are angry.

Thus, emotion produces necessary physiological changes and expresses itself overtly. But American psychologist William James and Danish physiologist Carl Lange proposed that the physiological changes give rise to corresponding emotional experiences.

Accordingly, we are afraid because we run, we are angry because we strike, we feel sorry because we cry. This theory proposes that we perceive the situation, we react and then we notice our emotions.

Hence, according to this theory, fear, anger or sorrow is not the cause, but the effect of stirred up state of the body- that is, the felt emotion is the perception of bodily changes. However, many objections are raised against this theory


2. Cannon-Bard Theory:

Walter B Cannon and Philip Bard proposed a new theory, on the basis of their findings by conducting operations on various parts of brain, including hypothalamus and cerebral cortex. According to this theory, the felt emotion and bodily reactions in emotion are independent of each other, both are triggered simultaneously. These theorists propose that, the cerebral cortex receives the sensory input from the environment, processes it and then passes the results to the thalamus.

Then the thalamic activity produces the emotional experience and as a switch board mechanism, relays the impulses to the brain and the hypothalamus at a time.

In turn the hypothalamus reacts with corresponding emotional feeling and stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, which leads to eventual behavioural expression of emotional states. In other words, impulses are sent simultaneously to the cerebral cortex and peripheral nervous system. Thus, the stimulus and the response to the stimulus are experienced at the same time but independently


3. Cognitive Theory:

Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer proposed this theory in 1962. This is also known as ‘cognitive appraisal theory’, because the intensity of emotion depends upon the cognitive appraisal of the situation.

These theorists state that generalized physiological excitation is the characteristic of emotional state. This emotional state may be considered a function of a state of physiological arousal and of cognition (past experience) appropriate to this state of arousal.   Thus, people experience internal arousal, seek an explanation for it, identify an external cue and finally label the cue.   For example, a person labels and understands his feelings as anger, fear, joy, etc., in terms of the nature of the event that trigger the emotion, and his understanding or interpretation of that event. If the situation involves the presence of a snake, he interprets the arousal of fear, whereas if it involves someone using his camera for recording, he would interpret as anger.

Thus, cognitive factors do play a very significant role in emotions. This theory has incorporated the elements of both James-Lange and Cannon-Bard theory (See Panel C above). In addition to the above, there are other theories also, viz., Watson’s theory of emotion, Emergency theories, Evolution theory, Homeostasis theory, etc. which explain the emotional process in the individual.


5. Differentiate between emotion and feeling.


Human beings are naturally emotive creatures. We often talk about how we are feeling. Over the course of our lifetimes we will experience millions of different sensations. Even over the course of a day we will not be untouched by feelings and emotions. Often, these two terms are used interchangeably, but there are differences between feelings and emotions that, if known, can help us to understand what’s going on inside a little better.

Definition of Feeling and Emotion
Feeling – has upwards of twenty different meanings, depending on which dictionary you consult. For our purposes, feeling can either refer to something experience as a result of outside stimuli reacting with one of your five senses or someone’s sensibilities, attitude, or emotional perception.
Emotion ‘“ is technically a state of consciousness in which various internal sensations are experienced. Emotion can be produced by a thought, memory, or external motivator and can often change our physical state.
Because of this, you could say that the biggest difference between feelings and emotions is that feelings have to be triggered by an external motivating factor whereas emotions can be completely internalized.


6. Discuss the Alderfer’s ERG theory.


To bring Maslow’s need hierarchy theory of motivation in synchronization with empirical research, Clayton Alderfer redefined it in his own terms. His rework is called as ERG theory of motivation. He recategorized Maslow’s hierarchy of needs into three simpler and broader classes of needs:

  • Existence needs- These include need for basic material necessities. In short, it includes an individual’s physiological and physical safety needs.
  • Relatedness needs- These include the aspiration individual’s have for maintaining significant interpersonal relationships (be it with family, peers or superiors), getting public fame and recognition. Maslow’s social needs and external component of esteem needs fall under this class of need.
  • Growth needs- These include need for self-development and personal growth and advancement. Maslow’s self-actualization needs and intrinsic component of esteem needs fall under this category of need.

ERG Theory of Motivation
The significance of the three classes of needs may vary for each individual.

Difference between Maslow Need Hierarchy Theory and Alderfer’s ERG Theory


  • ERG Theory states that at a given point of time, more than one need may be operational.
  • ERG Theory also shows that if the fulfillment of a higher-level need is subdued, there is an increase in desire for satisfying a lower-level need.
  • According to Maslow, an individual remains at a particular need level until that need is satisfied. While according to ERG theory, if a higher- level need aggravates, an individual may revert to increase the satisfaction of a lower- level need. This is called frustration- regression aspect of ERG theory. For instance- when growth need aggravates, then an individual might be motivated to accomplish the relatedness need and if there are issues in accomplishing relatedness needs, then he might be motivated by the existence needs. Thus, frustration/aggravation can result in regression to a lower-level need.
  • While Maslow’s need hierarchy theory is rigid as it assumes that the needs follow a specific and orderly hierarchy and unless a lower-level need is satisfied, an individual cannot proceed to the higher-level need; ERG Theory of motivation is very flexible as he perceived the needs as a range/variety rather than perceiving them as a hierarchy. According to Alderfer, an individual can work on growth needs even if his existence or relatedness needs remain unsatisfied. Thus, he gives explanation to the issue of “starving artist” who can struggle for growth even if he is hungry.



7. Explain the signs of arousal and anxiety.


Signs of Arousal and Anxiety
 Cold clammy hands
 Constant need to urinate
 Profuse sweating
 Negative self talk
 Dazed look in eyes
 Ill feeling
 Headache
 Dry mouth
 Difficulties sleeping
 Butterflies in stomach
 Inability to concentrate
 Increased muscle tension

Psychologists can identify what is the best combination of emotions needed for good
performance. Also one can recognise how personal things and things about one’s
situation can interact to influence anxiety and therefore performance. To take an
example from the sports field, an athlete can recognise arousal and anxiety signs and
the coaches can tailor their strategies to different individuals and understand that state
anxiety must be reduced, increased or maintained at certain optimum level.
There are certain personality types that are associated with health concerns , that is
for instance cardiovascular disease. One personality type is called Type A and is
associated with anger and hostility.
Arousal is a major aspect of many learning theories and is closely related to other
concepts such as anxiety, attention, agitation, stress, and motivation.
There has been quite a bit of research indicating the correlation suggested by Yerkes
and Dodson, but a cause of the correlation has not yet been fully established.
Although the Yerkes-Dodson law is quite old, it has held up in time through numerous
studies. Just because something is old, does not make it invalid. In fact, because it
has held up for so long it has gone from theory to law.
The arousal level can be thought of as how much capacity one has available to work
with. One finding with respect to arousal is the Yerkes-Dodson law which predicts
an inverted U-shaped function between arousal and performance.


A certain amount of arousal can be a motivator toward change, but too much or
too little will work against the learner. Hence one may want some mid level point of
arousal that provides the motivation to change. Too little arousal has an inert effect
on the learner, while too much has a hyper effect.


8. Explain the treatment and prevention of stress and anxiety.


Prevention of  anxiety

There are ways to reduce the risk of anxiety disorders. Remember that anxious feelings are a natural factor of daily life, and experiencing them does not always indicate the presence of a mental health disorder.

People may benefit from the following:

  • reducing caffeine intake
  • checking with a health professional before using over-the-counter or herbal remedies
  • maintaining a balanced, nutritious diet
  • keeping a regular sleep pattern
  • regularly exercising
  • avoiding alcohol, cannabis, and other recreational drugs


 ways to prevent stress

Many daily strategies can help you keep stress at bay:

  • Try relaxation activities, such as meditation, yoga, tai chi, breathing exercises and muscle relaxation. Programs are available online, in smartphone apps, and at many gyms and community centers.
  • Take good care of your body each day. Eating right, exercising and getting enough sleep help your body handle stress much better.
  • Stay positive and practice gratitude, acknowledging the good parts of your day or life.
  • Accept that you can’t control everything. Find ways to let go of worry about situations you cannot change.
  • Learn to say “no” to additional responsibilities when you are too busy or stressed.
  • Stay connected with people who keep you calm, make you happy, provide emotional support and help you with practical things. A friend, family member or neighbor can become a good listener or share responsibilities so that stress doesn’t become overwhelming.


Section C
Answer the following in about 50 words each: Marks
9. Psychogenic Needs.



American psychologist Henry Murray (1893-1988) developed a theory of personality that was organized in terms of motives, presses, and needs. Murray described a needs as a, “potentiality or readiness to respond in a certain way under certain given circumstances” (1938).

Theories of personality based upon needs and motives suggest that our personalities are a reflection of behaviors controlled by needs. While some needs are temporary and changing, other needs are more deeply seated in our nature. According to Murray, these psychogenic needs function mostly on the unconscious level, but play a major role in our personality.

Murray’s Types of Needs

Murray identified needs as one of two types:

    1. Primary Needs
      Primary needs are based upon biological demands, such as the need for oxygen, food, and water.
  1. Secondary Needs
    Secondary needs are generally psychological, such as the need for nurturing, independence, and achievement.


10. Emotion of love and affection.

 Affect is the conscious experience of an emotion.
 Emotional affect is the unconscious component of emotion.
 Non-emotional affect is rather a vague term that just includes everything that
is not an emotional affect, e.g. nausea and pain

Emotion is the umbrella term for all of the behavioural, expressive, cognitive
and physiological changes that occur.

Affect is subcortical. There is a tendency among some investigators to regard emotions
as largely subcortical and to sometimes also assume that cognitions are cortical.
One may also state that Affect is a Feeling or emotion, especially as manifested by
facial expression or body language, but, clearly for psychologists and those in related
fields, the word’s technical usage has yet to settle down.


11. Need for Achievement.

Another well-known need-based theory of motivation, as opposed to hierarchy of needs or satisfaction-dissatisfaction, is the theory developed by David C. McClelland and his associates. McClelland developed his theory based on Henry Murray’s (1938) developed long list of motives and manifest needs used in his early studies of personality.

McClelland’s need theory is closely associated with learning theory, because he believed that needs are learned or acquired by the kinds of events people experience in their environment and culture. He found that people who acquire a particular need behave differently from those who do not have.


This is the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set “standard, and to strive to succeed. In other words, need for achievement is a Behaviour directed towards competition with a standard of excellence. McClelland found that people with a high need for achievement perform better than those with a moderate or low need for achievement, and noted regional, national differences in achievement motivation.

12. Method to increase intrinsic motivation.

Do certain activities, experiences, or tasks get you energized? Maybe picking up a good book and reading it cover-to-cover, running long distances, or volunteering at your local animal shelter fills you with enjoyment. In instances like these, no external incentives are needed to propel you forward into action, rather, it is intrinsic motivation — motivation that comes from within — that gets you to act.

Intrinsic motivation does more than just get you to learn and take action, it also results in more sustained interest, excitement, confidence, persistence, self-esteem, and performance over time, which is why it is a feeling that many people seek to foster within themselves. Fortunately, there are ways to understand, increase, and build intrinsic motivation. With some helpful guidance from some of Talkspace’s licensed therapists, we present them to you below.

What is Intrinsic Motivation?

Intrinsic motivation is a feeling that comes from within and refers to a person’s behavior being driven by an internal desire, in contrast to extrinsic motivation, which is focused on external rewards such as praise or increased compensation. Research shows intrinsic motivation involves seeking out and engaging in activities that you find challenging and interesting on their own accord. In fact, external rewards for an internally rewarding activity can lessen its intrinsic benefits.

To put this concept into perspective, think about your motivation right now reading this piece. Do you have a genuine interest in psychology and want to gain a better understanding about this particular topic? If so, you are acting based on an intrinsic desire to acquire knowledge. Are you reading this for some kind of report you’re not excited about or for your job? If so, you are likely motivated by wanting to avoid a bad grade or for the possibility of recognition in the workplace. When you do something just for the pure enjoyment of the activity itself, you are intrinsically motivated.

13. Aggressive motivation.

An achievement motive is an impulse to master challenges and reach a high standard of excellence. Both personality and situational factors influence achievement motivation. Researchers often use the Thematic Apperception Test(TAT) to measure people’s need for achievement.

14. Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS).

The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale – 42 Items (DASS-42) is a set of three self-report scales designed to further the process of defining, understanding, and measuring the ubiquitous and clinically significant emotional states of depression, anxiety and stress[1]. DASS-21[1] is the shorter version of the test with the same three domains. It was designed by the Psychology Foundation of Australia.

DASS-42 has 14 items in each domain while the DASS-21 has seven. Each domain assesses the negative emotional symptoms on a four-point likert scale. A greater score indicates higher severity of these negative symptoms[2].

An earlier version of the DASS scales was referred to as the Self-Analysis Questionnaire (SAQ). The DASS is based on a dimensional rather than a categorical conception of psychological disorder. The assumption on which the DASS development was based (and which was confirmed by the research data) is that the differences between the depression, the anxiety, and the stress experienced by normal subjects and the clinically disturbed, are essentially differences of degree.

15. Stress and Emotion.


Stress symptoms may be affecting your health, even though you might not realize it. You may think illness is to blame for that irritating headache, your frequent insomnia or your decreased productivity at work. But stress may actually be the cause.

Common effects of stress

Indeed, stress symptoms can affect your body, your thoughts and feelings, and your behavior. Being able to recognize common stress symptoms can help you manage them. Stress that’s left unchecked can contribute to many health problems, such as high blood pressure, heart disease, obesity and diabetes




No aspect of our mental life is more important to the quality and meaning of our existence than the emotions. They are what make life worth living and sometimes worth ending. So it is not surprising that most of the great classical philosophers had recognizable theories of emotions. These theories typically conceived of emotions as a subject’s phenomenologically salient responses to significant events and as capable of triggering distinctive bodily changes and behaviors. But it is surprising that throughout much of the twentieth-century, scientists and philosophers of mind tended to neglect the emotions—in part because of behaviorism’s allergy to inner mental states and in part because the variety of phenomena covered by the word “emotion” discourages tidy theorizing. In recent decades, however, emotions have once again become the focus of vigorous interest in philosophy and affective science. Our objective in this entry is to account for these developments, focusing primarily on the descriptive question of what the emotions are, but tackling also the normative question of whether emotions are rational. In view of the proliferation of exchanges between researchers of different stripes, it is no longer useful to speak of the philosophy of emotion in isolation from the approaches of other disciplines, particularly psychology, neuroscience, and evolutionary biology. This is why we have made an effort to pay significant attention to scientific developments, as we are convinced that cross-disciplinary fertilization is our best chance for making progress in emotion theory.


16. Marten’s Multidimensional Anxiety Theory.

Multidimensional Anxiety Theory is a theory of anxiety specific to the field of sports psychology, and it seeks to explain performance during sports in accordance with the experience of anxiety.

Knowing how the person experiences anxiety in a sports situation is necessary to know which aspects of their behavior or thinking may be changed to make their performance better and enable them to feel good about the sports.


17. Components of emotions.


Components of Emotions:

There are three components of emotions.

a. Cognition:

This component serves primarily to influence an evaluation of given situation, prompting us to become emotional in one way or another, or not at all.

b. Feeling:

In daily life we think of feelings. The feelings are most readily evident changes in an aroused person. Feelings have immediate motivational significance.

They give rise to many physiological processes in the cardiovascular system and produce increased blood pressure, changes in sexual urge. They also stimulate nervous system and prompt widespread electrochemical activities.

c. Behaviour:

The behavioural component involves facial, postural, gestures and vocal responses.

Changes during Emotions:

Changes during emotions are divided into external and internal changes.

External changes:

There are many external or observable changes during emotion.

a. The voice changes according to the type of emotion. Experiments have proved that emotions can be identified on the basis of voice.

b. Facial expressions change. We can identify emotion experienced by a person by looking at his face.

c. There will be changes in the body language like stiffness of muscles, twisting of fingers, movements of hands and legs.

d. Sweating.

e. Wrinkles on forehead.

f. Redness of eyes.

g. Erection of hairs on the skin, etc.

Internal changes:

Many internal changes take place during emotions. These internal changes are the result of stimulation of

The ANS has 2 subdivisions. Sympathetic division prepares the body for facing emergency either by fight or by flight, i.e. fights if possible, otherwise escapes from the situation. It stimulates the adrenal glands and causes the excess release of adrenaline and nor-adrenaline. Adrenaline gets circulated all over the body and stimulates vital organs leading to following internal changes.

a. Increase in heart rate thereby increase in BP

b. Increase in rate of respiration

c. Increase in blood sugar level

d. Decrease in functioning of GI tract-that is why we do not experience the feeling of hunger during emotional states

e. Changes in frequency of brain waves

f. Dilatation of pupils

g. Decreased secretion of saliva and dryness of mouth.

After the emergency or emotional situation is over, the next step is to restore the energy spent during emotion. This work is carried on by parasympathetic division.

18. Attribution theory.


Attribution is a term used in psychology which deals with how individuals perceive the causes of everyday experience, as being either external or internal. Models to explain this process are called attribution theoryPsychological research into attribution began with the work of Fritz Heider in the early 20th century, and the theory was further advanced by Harold Kelley and Bernard Weiner. Heider first introduced the concept of perceived ‘locus of causality’ to define the perception of one’s environment.    For instance, an experience may be perceived as being caused by factors outside the person’s control (external) or it may be perceived as the person’s own doing (internal). These initial perceptions are called attributions.   Psychologists use these attributions to better understand an individual’s motivation and competence.  The theory is of particular interest to employers who use it to increase worker motivation, goal orientation, and productivity.

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