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IGNOU MTTM 1 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2022-23 PDF
1. Describe the responsibilities of managers towards employee and Government. 20
2. What is planning? Elaborate the steps involved in designing a control process. 20
3. Analyse the skills required for building an Institution. 20
4. How many types of managerial decisions are there? When and how group decision strategies should
be used? 20
5. Distinguish between culture and climate. How culture and climate will affect productivity? Give
suitable examples. 20
6. Describe different modes of “Conflict Management”? 20
7. What is “Domino Effect”? How one can avoid external dependence. 20
8. Write short notes on 10X2=20
(a) Encoding Message
(b) Decoding Message
9. Write an essay on “Feedback System as a control” 20
10. Write short notes on 10X2=20
a) Social Learning Theory
b) Successful Leader
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MTTM 1: MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS AND BEHAVIOUR
(Tutor Marked Assignment)
Course Code: MTTM 1 Programme: MTTM
Total Marks: 100 Assignment Code: MTTM1/TMA/2023
- Describe the responsibilities of managers towards employee and Government
A firm is a social institution that has harmonious relationship with the various segments of society. This relationship can be better understood by understanding the responsibility of manager. These responsibilities are towards customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers, distributors and retailers, Competitors, unions, government and society. Let’s discuss the responsibility of manager one by one:
Responsibility of Manager towards customers
The starting point for the business firm is the understanding of the needs of the customer and the foremost responsibility of manager is towards the customers.
- He must ensure that the desired quality of product at a reasonable price is made easily available to the customers.
- It is the responsibility of the manager to provide the right match between quality and price.
- It is responsibility of manager to promote the products only on the basis of real and not imaginary benefits.
- The management of a firm should always, aim at marketing, the right product, at the right price and of the right quality
Responsibility towards Shareholders
All those people who contribute capital to a firm are known as its shareholders.
- The prime responsibility of the manager is to ensure the security of the shareholders’ capital.
- The manager must, at least, ensure the survival of the firm.
- He has to ensure that the shareholders are able to earn profit on their capital.
- He must keep shareholders regularly informed about all important decisions, activities and results.
- He must ensure that the information provided in reports.and balance-sheets is correct and authentic, and does not in any way mislead the shareholders
Responsibility towards Employees
Your employees are your most important resource. Their hard work, ingenuity, loyalty and dedication are critical contributions to the success of your firm.
- A manager must ensure that employees are given fair deal in terms of wages and salaries, and compliance with the statutory obligation of provident fund, gratuity, insurance, bonus, etc.
- The employees must be provided the provision of a safe, healthy environment which is conducive to work
- The responsibility of a manager is also to ensure that all dealings with the employees are fair.
Responsibility towards Suppliers
The Survival of Supplier depends upon the survival and growth of firm. Suppliers provide you the raw materials, components and parts necessary for the production of your products. A firm depends upon the supplier to for regular, timely supplies of the specified quality at the agreed price.
- A manager must try to make the payment of suppliers in time.
- The manager’s responsibility towards suppliers of funds, i.e. banks and other financial institutions, is that not only he has to make the interest payments, but make the repayment on time as per the agreed repayment schedules.
Responsibility towards distributors and retailors
Distributors and retailers are the link between the firm and the actual customers who consume the product.
- It is the responsibility of manager for ensuring regular supplies to distributors.
- The products that you supply to the distributor must be checked for quality to ensure that second grade or inferior quality goods are not shipped.
- The distributors must earn fair profit and apart from providing fixed percentage the target based incentives, commissions and rewards will motivate dealers to push your products harder.
- A manager must nurture and maintain cordial relationship with all dealers.
Responsibility towards Industry and Competition
Other firms are competitors in market but act as lobby to represent an industry by constituting industry associations.
- It is responsibility of manager to register his firm as a member of industry association and comply with all its rules and regulations
- The information provided to these associations must be correct so that the association can present a true picture of the industry.
Responsibility towards Union
- The first responsibility of manager is to acknowledge the employee unions as a friend rather than as a foe of the firm.
- A manager must understand and appreciate the fact that the management and union have a great degree of mutual dependence and the union cannot further its interests at the cost of the firm’s interests and vice versa
- The manager must recognise and acknowledge the bargaining power of the union arising out of its collective strength
Responsibility towards Government
- It is responsibility of the manager to ensure that the constitution and operations of the firm are within the legal framework as specified by the government.
- The manager should ensure that his firm is paying regularly and fairly all taxes, dues and duties.
- The manager must strive to make his firm a model corporate citizen
Responsibility towards Society
- The manager also has responsibility towards his surroundings and the people living in the vicinity of his factory and office.
- It is responsibility of manager to make sure that the operations of firm do not in any way obstruct, disturb, disrupt or destroy physical structures (historical buildings, monuments), the flora and fauna, and animal and human life
- A truly responsible manager not only takes steps to prevent or minimise any negative impact of his firm’s operations on the society, but also takes the initiative in playing a more positive role towards society
- What is planning? Elaborate the steps involved in designing a control process.
Controlling is regarded as one of the most important management functions. In fact, without the presence of a control function, the entire management function will become obsolete. The management will not be able to determine if the plan is working properly or not, or if it is properly implemented or not.
The main objective of the control process is to make sure that the activities within an organisation are going as per the planning. Control process helps the managers in determining the level of performance of their respective organisations.
Steps involved in Control Process
The following are the steps involved in the control process:
- Establishing standards and methods or ways to measure performance
- Measuring actual performance
- Determining if the performance matches with the standard
- Taking corrective action and re-evaluating the standard
Let us go ahead and discuss the above mentioned steps in detail.
Establishing performance standards: Although setting of goals and standards are part of the planning process, it also plays an important role in controlling.
The main objective of controlling is to guide the business towards the desired target. Therefore, if the employees or members of a business are well aware of the target, it will result in more awareness about the target.
The managers must communicate the goals and objectives clearly to the employees without any ambiguities. An organisation in which everyone is working towards a common objective has a better chance to grow and prosper.
Measuring actual performance against the set standards : The immediate action that managers need to take after being made aware of the goals, is to measure their actual performance and compare that with the standards already set. This helps in identifying if the plan is actually working as was thought to be.
Once a plan is implemented, the task of managers is to monitor the plans and evaluate. Managers must be ready with an alternative plan or suggest corrective measures in case the plan is not going as was intended.
This can be done only when managers are measuring their actual performance. The way performance can be evaluated is to measure it in monetary terms, hiring financial experts.
This step of controlling is helpful in detecting future problems and issues and is essential for taking decisions immediately so that the company is able to recover from the losses.
Determining if the performance matches with the standard: Checking if the performance matches with the standards is very important. It is an important step in controlling. In this step, the results are measured with the already set standards.
Taking corrective action and re-evaluating the standard: Corrective measures need to be taken when there is a discrepancy. Correct actions provide protection against loss and stop them from reappearing in future.
- Analyse the skills required for building an Institution.
Management jobs are all about people and being able to build successful relationships is integral. To lead a team, you’ll need to earn the respect of your colleagues. To do this, you need to know how to effectively deal with people.
Setting time aside to get to know team members on both a personal and professional level, through social activities or team-building events while still maintaining professional boundaries, will go a long way to earning their respect.
Communication and motivation
Effective leaders must master all forms of communication including written, verbal and listening skills. As a team manager you’re the line of communication between frontline staff and senior management. You’ll liaise with a variety of people, from entry-level employees to heads of departments and CEOs, in a number of different ways – via email and social media, over the phone and in presentations, meetings and one-to-ones.
You’ll need to establish a trusting relationship with employees, so they feel comfortable sharing information with you, and vice versa. To ensure that lines of communication remain open, you’ll need to make yourself readily available and accessible to your employees to discuss any issues or concerns that arise. Having an open-door policy or weekly or monthly team meetings should facilitate this. Let your staff know that they matter by maintaining eye contact, smiling and listening attentively.
An open, positive attitude goes a long way to creating a healthy work environment. Don’t shut yourself off or put yourself on a pedestal. Simple gestures, such as active encouragement, recognising achievements and taking an interest in the lives of your employees, ensures that staff feel valued. A positive workplace creates happy, motivated employees.
Organisation and delegation
As a manager you’ll juggle multiple responsibilities, so excellent organisational skills are vital. You’ll need to manage your own workload, oversee the work of other employees, attend meetings and training sessions, carry out appraisals and review company policies. Sloppy working practices, tardiness and a general lack of organisation won’t be tolerated at this level and will set a bad example to your staff. Effective organisational skills reduce stress, save time and ensure that important deadlines are met.
Many managers ease their own busy workload by delegating tasks to colleagues. To do this effectively you need to analyse and identify the skills of your employees and assign duties to each depending on their skillset. Delegation isn’t a sign of weakness and can in fact multiply the amount of work that a manager can accomplish – while developing the team’s confidence and skills.
Forward planning and strategic thinking
It’s a manager’s job to think of the bigger picture, so as well as focusing on today’s tasks and responsibilities you’ll also need to plan for the future. This means setting priorities in line with company goals, reviewing systems and policies, and attending training and managing the continuing professional development (CPD) activities of your team. As a strategic thinker, you’ll encourage innovation and change to make your team and the organisation as a whole more productive and profitable.
Problem solving and decision-making
You’ll be tasked with spotting and solving problems on a daily basis in a managerial position. This requires outstanding attention to detail and the ability to remain calm under pressure. To ensure that your team is productive, and that the workflow runs smoothly, you’ll have to think on your feet when problems arise. Creative thinking will help you to come up with innovative solutions that minimise the impact on your team and the business
This skill is in huge demand among business employers. In fact, according to recruiters, commercial awareness is something that most graduates lack.
If you want to progress to management level, an understanding of the marketplace in which a business operates and what it is that makes a business successful is essential. To demonstrate this, you’ll need to show that you:
- are aware of the organisation’s mission and aims
- have an understanding of the sector that the company belongs to
- know about the political and economic issues affecting the business
- can identify the company’s competitors.
As well as being business-focused decision-makers, managers also need to play a supportive role. If you’ve reached this senior level, you have a repertoire of experience, knowledge and skills, and it’s your job to pass this knowledge on and share your skills with others.
This involves training and advising staff and building their confidence and skills. In a management position, you’ll be the driving force behind the progression of team members.
- Describe different modes of “Conflict Management”?
Conflicts are natural in all walks of daily life – both at workplace and home. Thus, conflict is ever present and both charming and maddening. But conflict is a complex and big subject. There are many sources of conflict. Conflict occurs when individuals or groups are not obtaining what they need or want and are seeking their own self-interest.
The concept of conflict is controversial. Psychologists and sociologists have given different meanings. It is being defined as a process by few, an obstructive behavior, and goal incompatibility by others. Conflict can be expressed as:
Conflict is a process, where perception (real or otherwise) leads to disruption of desirable state of harmony and stability in an interdependent world.
Characteristics of Conflict:
1. Conflict is a Process:
Conflict occurs in ‘layers’. First layer is always misunderstanding. The other layers are differences of values, differences of viewpoint, differences of interest, and interpersonal differences. It is also called a process because it begins with one party perceiving the other to oppose or negatively affect its interests and ends with competing, collaborating, compromising or avoiding.
2. Conflict is Inevitable:
Conflict exists everywhere. No two persons are the same. Hence they may have individual differences. And the differences may be because of values or otherwise, lead to conflict. Although inevitable, conflict can be minimized, diverted and/or resolved. Conflict develops because we are dealing with people’s lives, jobs, children, pride, self-concept, ego and sense of mission. Conflict is inevitable and often good, for example, good teams always go through a “form, storm, norm and perform” period.
3. Conflict is a Normal Part of Life:
Individuals, groups, and organisations have unlimited needs and different values but limited resources. Thus, this incompatibility is bound to lead to conflicts. The conflict is not a problem, but if it is poorly managed then it becomes a problem.
It must be perceived by the parties to it, otherwise it does not exist. In interpersonal interaction, perception is more important than reality. What we perceive and think affects our behaviour, attitudes, and communication.
One party to the conflict must be perceiving or doing something the other party does not like or want.
6. Interdependence and Interaction:
There must be some kind of real or perceived interdependence. Without interdependence there can be no interaction. Conflict occurs only when some kind of interaction takes place.
7. Everyone is inflicted with Conflict:
Conflict may occur within an individual, between two or more individuals, groups or between organisations.
8. Conflict is not Unidimensional:
It comes into different ways in accordance with degree of seriousness and capacity. At times, it may improve even a difficult situation.
Concept of Conflict Management:
‘Conflict management is the principle that all conflicts cannot necessarily be resolved, but learning how to manage conflicts can decrease the odds of non-productive escalation. Conflict management involves acquiring skills related to conflict resolution, self-awareness about conflict modes, conflict communication skills, and establishing a structure for management of conflict in your environment.’ All members of every organisation need to have ways of keeping conflict to a minimum – and of solving problems caused by conflict, before conflict becomes a major obstacle to your work.
- Write short notes on 10X2=20
- a) Social Learning Theory
Social learning theory, introduced by psychologist Albert Bandura, proposed that learning occurs through observation, imitation, and modeling and is influenced by factors such as attention, motivation, attitudes, and emotions. The theory accounts for the interaction of environmental and cognitive elements that affect how people learn.1
The theory suggests that learning occurs because people observe the consequences of other people’s behaviors. Bandura’s theory moves beyond behavioral theories, which suggest that all behaviors are learned through conditioning, and cognitive theories, which consider psychological influences such as attention and memory.
According to Bandura, people observe behavior either directly through social interactions with others or indirectly by observing behaviors through media. Actions that are rewarded are more likely to be imitated, while those that are punished are avoided.
During the first half of the 20th-century, the behavioral school of psychology became a dominant force. The behaviorists proposed that all learning was a result of direct experience with the environment through the processes of association and reinforcement.2 Bandura’s theory believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning.
For example, children and adults often exhibit learning for things with which they have no direct experience. Even if you have never swung a baseball bat in your life, you would probably know what to do if someone handed you a bat and told you to try to hit a baseball. This is because you have seen others perform this action either in person or on television.
- b) Successful Leader
Strong, effective leaders are essential in every field, but particularly in education. Whether it’s leading young people or adults, it’s necessary for leaders to have certain qualities to be successful. The following are eight essential qualities of an effective leader and it’s no surprise that great leaders have all these in common.
A positive attitude can set the tone and motivate individuals to be more productive. People who are optimistic about not only themselves and what they’re doing, but about other people, are much more likely to inspire others to be, and do their best.
2. Ability to Make Difficult Decisions
The ability to make difficult decisions based on the facts and circumstances of each specific situation is a crucial quality of a great leader and effective leadership. The qualities of a good leader will rely on both reason and intuition. True leaders must also know when to make decisions solely on their own, and when they can, and should, be based on the input of others when working towards a common goal.
3. Ability to Delegate
A strong, confident and effective leader is not afraid to let others handle the workload and can ultimately give credit where credit is due. Strong leaders also get to know the people they’re working with well enough to decide who is best suited for the delegation of certain tasks. A person who understands this leadership style is typically a better leader.
4. Must be Approachable
In order to keep the channels of communication open, a true leader must be approachable at all times. You’ll know that you have the qualities of a good leader when peers and subordinates feel comfortable bringing both good and bad news to you as the person in charge.
Neither adults nor children are going to follow an individual that they feel they can’t trust. In a culture where people’s ethical standards seem to be rapidly deteriorating, a successful leader that embodies integrity will stand out in the crowd and naturally draw in followers.
Humble leaders are good leaders who know that even though they assume the leadership position and are in charge, the contributions of others are very important. It’s also necessary for great leaders to understand that admitting mistakes is not a sign of weakness, but of strength, self-awareness, and high emotional intelligence.
People feel more comfortable when they know exactly what is expected of them and how those in charge expect them to accomplish those goals. In practical terms, this leadership style often entails good communication skills as it calls for communicating face to face instead of by email and delivering important information in a timely manner.
Effective leaders will not only be transparent regarding expectations, but about who they are as individuals when they take on a leadership role. Authentic and successful leaders direct with a consistency that is based on their true character, not a contrived style. Eventually, others will see through a facade.