Explain India’s major concerns in South Asia.

As of my last update in September 2021, India had several major concerns in South Asia that have been shaping its foreign policy and security strategies. Please keep in mind that the situation may have evolved since then, but the following were some of the key concerns:

1. **Security and Terrorism:** India has been facing security threats from terrorist organizations operating in the region, such as Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed, which have carried out attacks on Indian soil. These groups find safe havens and support from certain elements in neighboring countries, raising concerns about cross-border terrorism.

2. **Border Disputes:** India has long-standing territorial disputes with both Pakistan and China. With Pakistan, the Kashmir issue remains a major concern, and India has accused Pakistan of supporting separatist movements in the region. The unresolved border issue with China, especially the dispute over the Line of Actual Control (LAC), has led to occasional standoffs and tensions.

3. **Chinese Influence:** India is wary of China’s growing influence in South Asia, particularly through its Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) projects. India perceives some of these infrastructure developments as strategic encirclement, impacting its own regional interests.

4. **Water Security:** Water resources in South Asia, particularly in the Indus and Brahmaputra river basins, are shared by India and its neighboring countries, creating concerns about water security and potential disputes over water usage and management.

5. **Economic Cooperation and Trade Imbalances:** India seeks to enhance economic cooperation with its neighbors while addressing trade imbalances. China’s economic dominance in the region is a concern for India, and it has been seeking ways to boost its own economic presence.

6. **Migration and Refugees:** Large-scale migration and refugee flows from neighboring countries, particularly Bangladesh, have been a matter of concern for India. This has implications for demographics, security, and socio-economic stability.

7. **Nuclear Proliferation:** India is wary of nuclear proliferation in the region and has concerns about the safety and security of nuclear weapons and facilities in some neighboring countries.

8. **Regional Integration and SAARC:** India has been promoting regional integration and cooperation through organizations like the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). However, issues such as cross-border terrorism and political differences among member countries have hindered effective cooperation.

9. **Maritime Security:** India is concerned about maintaining maritime security in the Indian Ocean region, including ensuring the safety of vital sea lanes and countering piracy and other maritime threats.

10. **Energy Security:** India’s growing energy needs make it reliant on stable energy supplies from the region, leading to concerns about energy security and access to resources.

India’s approach to addressing these concerns has been a mix of diplomacy, engagement, and strategic partnerships with various countries in the region and beyond. As with any evolving geopolitical situation, India’s concerns in South Asia may have changed or developed further since my last update.

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