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IGNOU MTTM 1 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2021-22

IGNOU MTTM 1 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2021-22

 

MTTM 1/MTM-1 MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS AND BEHAVIOUR IN TOURISM
(Tutor Marked Assignment)
Course Code: MTTM/MTM-1 Programme: MTTM/MTM
Total Mark: 100 Assignment Code: MTTM 1/MTM 1/TMA/2022

 

1. Describe responsibilities of a professional manager. 20

Answer 

Professional management involves the administration of an organization in a well-reasoned way. A professional manager must not possess only professional skills, but technical and administrative skills as well. If a professional manager has long experience of business affair management, it acts as an added advantage for successful professional management. The task of a professional manager is to ensure employee success and in turn, the success of the organization as a whole. Efficient teamwork and motivating the workforce are among the number of management tasks a manager needs to perform.

 Professional Manager Responsibilities

A professional manager has quite a lot of tasks. Expertise in management tasks makes them an inevitable part of an organization. The must-have skills for professional managers to perform their manager responsibilities are excellent communication skills, ability to make decisions, leading from the front if needed, an efficient delegation of jobs, supervision, performance analysis and implementation of strategies. Also, people skills and conceptual skills are equally important. Armed with these skills, the management roles and responsibilities are performed duly. So, what are the manager’s responsibilities? They are listed below:

  1. Defining Your Objectives

As a manager, provide a clear direction to the organization as the first and foremost task. Establish visions and missions for the organization.

A manager should not delegate this task to anyone else, but must complete it himself. When the company’s objectives are defined, employees work towards a common purpose and are unified.

  1. Growth Management

In addition to managing growth and ensuring the survival of the firm, a manager has other responsibilities. Growth and survival of this firm are threatened both internally and externally.

The factors related to the firm’s internal functions (such as selecting the correct technology, hiring the right people, etc) are mostly under the company’s control. The manager must deal with external factors like government policy and economic conditions.

  1. Keeping Efficiency High and Improving it

In order for a firm to operate efficiently, managers possess a variety of roles and responsibilities. First of all, he must check to ensure that the firm is efficient, i.e. there is no waste of resources. Secondly, he must make sure that this efficiency is properly maintained.

  1. Creativity

Management is a job that requires innovation on the part of the manager. In order for the firm to successfully solve its problems, innovative solutions must be found. Not only are new ideas necessary, but they must also be nurtured and implemented. Managers are responsible for doing both of these on an ongoing basis.

  1. Be on the Lookout for Competitors

Market competition is something that needs to be planned for and prepared for by the manager. Keeping up with changes and/or increased competition can never be taken for granted.

  1. Leading by Example

It is usually the leadership that determines an organization’s future. The manager must also have good leadership qualities. In order to achieve the company’s goals, he must inspire and motivate employees.

A leader leads from the front, as well as a manager who demonstrates the qualities and work ethic that other members of a team can learn from.

  1. Management of Change

Change is a fact of life in every company and organization. Managers are responsible for bringing this sweeping change about. Among his responsibilities, he must ensure that the company’s transformation is smooth and uneventful.

  1. Selecting the Right Technology

Managing in the 21st century is a challenging task for all managers. A wide variety of IT processes are available today.

2. Discuss the managerial levels and roles of a top executive. 20

Answer 

The term “Levels of Management’ refers to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an organization. The number of levels in management increases when the size of the business and work force increases and vice versa. The level of management determines a chain of command, the amount of authority & status enjoyed by any managerial position. The levels of management can be classified in three broad categories:

 

  1. Top level / Administrative level
  2. Middle level / Executory
  3. Low level / Supervisory / Operative / First-line managers

 

 

      Roles of a top executive

 

All organizations have specific goals and objectives that they strive to meet. Top executives devise strategies and formulate policies to ensure that these goals and objectives are met. Although they have a wide range of titles—such as chief executive officer, chief operating officer, general manager, president, vice president, school superintendent, county administrator, and mayor—all formulate policies and direct the overall operations of businesses and corporations, public-sector organizations, nonprofit institutions, and other organizations.

A corporation’s goals and policies are established by the chief executive officer in collaboration with other top executives. All of these principals are closely monitored by a board of directors. In a large corporation, the chief executive officer meets frequently with the other top executives to ensure that the overall operation of the corporation is conducted in accordance with these goals and policies. In a governmental or nonprofit organization, top executives oversee budgets and ensure that resources are used properly and that programs are carried out as planned. Chief executive officers in government often nominate citizens to boards and commissions, encourage business investment, and promote economic development in their communities. To do all of these varied tasks effectively, top executives rely on a staff of highly skilled personnel.

Although the chief executive officer of a corporation retains overall accountability, a chief operating officer may be delegated several responsibilities, including the authority to oversee other executives who direct the activities of various departments and implement the organization’s guidelines on a day-to-day basis. In publicly held and nonprofit corporations, the board of directors or a similar governing body ultimately is accountable for the success or failure of the enterprise and the chief executive officer reports to the board. In addition to being responsible for the operational success of a company, top executives, particularly chief financial officers, are accountable for the accuracy of their financial reporting, especially among publicly traded companies.

The nature of the responsibilities of other high-level executives depends on an organization’s size. In small organizations, such as independent retail stores or small manufacturers, a partner, an owner, or a general manager often is responsible for purchasing, hiring, training, quality control, and day-to-day supervisory duties. In large organizations, top executives not only direct the overall organization, but also may be responsible for implementing strategies and setting the overall direction of a certain area of the company or organization. For example, chief financial officers direct the organization’s financial goals, objectives, and budgets. They oversee the investment of funds and manage associated risks, supervise cash management activities, execute capital-raising strategies to support a firm’s expansion, and deal with mergers and acquisitions.

Chief information officers are responsible for the overall technological direction of their organizations. Today, these officers are playing a more important role in organizations and are increasingly becoming part of the executive team. To perform effectively, they need knowledge of the workings of the total organization. These managers propose budgets for projects and programs and make decisions about staff training and purchases of equipment. They hire and assign computer specialists, information technology workers, and support personnel to carry out information-technology-related projects. They manage the work of these employees, review their output, and establish administrative procedures and policies. Chief information officers also provide organizations with the vision to master information technology as a competitive tool.

General and operations managers plan, direct, or coordinate the operations of companies and other public- or private-sector organizations. Their duties and responsibilities include formulating policies, managing daily operations, and planning the use of materials and human resources that are too diverse and general in nature to be classified into any one area of management or administration, such as personnel, purchasing, or administrative services. In some organizations, the tasks of general and operations managers may overlap those of chief executive officers.

 

3. What is the significance of having procedures and policies?

 

 

4. What do you understand by managerial ethos? How culture and Ethos are maintained? 20
5. Write short notes on: 10X2=20
a) Modes of conflict management
b) Sources of conflict

6. Describe the process of organizational change. 20

Answer 

Organisational change refers to any alteration that occurs in total work environment. Organisational change is an important characteristic of most organisations. An organisation must develop adaptability to change otherwise it will either be left behind or be swept away by the forces of change. Organisational change is inevitable in a progressive culture. Modern organizations are highly dynamic, versatile and adaptive to the multiplicity of changes.

Organisational change refers to the alteration of structural relationships and roles of people in the organization. It is largely structural in nature. An enterprise can be changed in several ways. Its technology can be changed, its structure, its people and other elements can be changed. Organisational change calls for a change in the individual behaviour of the employees.

 

Process of Organisational Change:

Unless the behavioural patterns of the employees change, the change will have a little impact on the effectiveness of the organisation.

 

(1) Unfreezing:

The essence of unfreezing phase is that the individual is made to realize that his beliefs, feelings and behaviour are no longer appropriate or relevant to the current situation in the organisation. Once convinced, people may change their behaviour. Reward for those willing to change and punishment for others may help in this matter.

(2) Changing:

Once convinced and ready to change, an individual, under this phase, learns to behave in new ways. He is first provided with the model in which he is to identify himself. Gradually he will accept that model and behave in the manner suggested by the model. In another process (known as internalisation), the individual is placed in a situation where new behaviour is demanded of him if he is to operate successfully.

(3) Refreezing:

During this phase, a person has to practice and experiment with the new method of behaviour and see that it effectively blends with his other behavioural attitudes. Reinforcement, for creating a permanent set in the individual, is provided through either continuous or intermittent schedules.

 

7. Write an essay on organizational structure and design in travel and tourism sector. 20

8. What is the importance of communication in travel and tourism sector? Give suitable examples. 20

 

9. Discuss the strategies of control. 20

Answer 

Strategic controls are intended to steer the company towards its long-term strategic direction. After a strategy is selected, it is implemented over time so as to guide a firm within a rapidly changing environment. Strategies are forward-looking, and based on management assumptions about numerous events that have not yet occurred.

Traditional approaches to control seek to compare actual results against a standard. The work is done, the manager evaluates the work and uses the evaluation as input to control future efforts. While this approach is not useless, it is inappropriate as a means to control a strategy.

Waiting until a strategy has been fully executed often involves five or more years, during which many changes occur, that have major ramifications for the ultimate success of the strategy. Consequently, traditional control concepts must be replaced in favour of strategic controls that recognise the unique control needs of long-term strategies.

Strategic control is concerned with tracking the strategy as it is being implemented, detecting problems or changes in the premises and making necessary adjustments. In contrast to post- action control, strategic control is concerned with controlling and guiding efforts on behalf of the strategy as action is taking place.

Role of Various Organizational Systems in Strategic Control

Strategic control operates in the context of various organizational systems. An organization develops various systems which help in integrating various parts of the organization. The major organizational systems are – information system, planning system, development system, appraisal system, and motivation system. All these systems play their role in strategic control. Some of these systems are closely and directly related and some are indirectly related to control.

For example, information system is closely linked to evaluation as it provides clue as to how the organization is progressing. Development system, on the other hand, is not closely linked to evaluation system but undertaken as a post-control action. In the light of this, let us see how various organizational systems play their role in strategic control.

1. Information System:

Control action is guided by adequate information from the beginning to the end. Management information and management control systems are closely interrelated; the information system is designed on the basis of control system. Every manager in the organization must have adequate information about his performance, standards, and how he is contributing to the achievement of organizational objectives. There must be a system of information tailored to the specific management needs at every level, both in terms of adequacy and timeliness.

Information system ensures that every manager gets adequate information. The criterion for adequacy of information to a manager is his responsibility and authority, that is, in the context of his responsibility and authority, what type of information the manager needs. This can be determined on the basis of careful analysis of the manager’s functions. If the manager is not using any information for taking certain action, the information may be meant for informing him only and not falling within his information requirement.

2. Planning System:

Planning is the basis for control in the sense that it provides the entire spectrum on which control function is based. In fact, these two terms are often used together in the designation of the department which carries production planning, scheduling, and routing. It emphasises that there is a plan which directs the behaviour and activities in the organization. Control measures these behaviour and activities and suggests measures to remove deviation, if any.

3. Development System:

Development system is concerned with developing personnel to perform better in their present positions and likely future positions that they are expected to occupy. Thus, development system aims at increasing organizational capability through people to achieve better results. These results, then, become the basis for control.

4. Appraisal System:

Appraisal or performance appraisal system involves systematic evaluation of the individual with regard to his performance on the job and his potential for development. While evaluating an individual, not only his performance is taken into consideration but also his abilities and potential for better performance. Thus, appraisal system provides feedback for control system about how individuals are performing.

5. Motivation System:

Motivation system is not only related to control system but to the entire organizational processes. Lack of motivation on the part of managers is a significant barrier in the process of control. Since the basic objective of control is to ensure that organizational objectives are achieved, motivation plays a central role in this process. It energises managers and other employees in the organization to perform better which is the key for organizational success.

 

10. Write short notes on: 10×2=20
a) Interpersonal Attraction

Answer 

Physical Attractiveness

 

Despite the old sayings that “beauty is only skin deep” and “you can not judge  a book by its cover”, we tend to operate according to Aristotle’s 2000-year-old  pronouncement that “personal beauty is a greater recommendation than any letter  of introduction”.  One of the most commonly cited factors influencing attraction is physical
attractiveness. It is indeed well known that most people show a substantial  preference for attractive persons over unattractive others (Baumeister & Bushman,  2008). Perhaps the advantage of good looks and the inferences people make  when they see a physically attractive person are the reasons for getting attracted  to another person.  Studies have shown that when people see an attractive person, they believe that  there is more than physical beauty that they see, and they tend to assume certain  internal qualities within the person, such as kindness, outgoing, etc. (Barocas &
Karoly, 1972). To illustrate this factor, let us take the research illustrating this  relationship between physical attractiveness and its stereotypes. For instance, a\  study on popularity among adolescents was carried out by Cavior & Dokecki in 1973. They found that when physical attractiveness was compared to perceived  attitude similarity, physical attractiveness had a stronger effect on popularity. These  findings suggest that individuals’ perceptions of attitude similarity with those of  others may be strongly influenced by more automatic judgments of physical
attractiveness. Such demonstrations of preferential treatment may have significant  implications at the level of society, as well. For example, in one jury task  simulation experiment, more attractive defendants were found to be evaluated  more positively and with less certainty of guilt than were other less attractive  defendants

 

Propinquity/Proximity

According to Rowland Miller’s Intimate Relationships text, the propinquity effect  can be defined as: “the more we see and interact with a person, the more likely he or she is to become our friend or intimate partner.” This effect is very similar to the mere exposure effect in that the more a person is exposed to a stimulus,  the more the person likes it; however, there are a few exceptions to the mere  exposure effect.

 

Similarity

The notion of “birds of a feather flock together” points out that similarity is a  crucial determinant of interpersonal attraction. According to Morry’s attractionsimilarity model (2007), there is a lay belief that people with actual similarity  produce initial attraction. Perceived similarity develops for someone to rate others  as similar to themselves in ongoing relationship. Such perception is either self  serving (friendship) or relationship serving (romantic relationship). Newcomb (1963)  pointed out that people tend to change perceived similarity to obtain balance in  a relationship. Additionally, perceived similarity was found to be greater than  actual similarity in predicting interpersonal attraction.

 

b) Leadership and Influence Process

Answer 

Influence processes refer to the five ways leaders shape organizational variables including people and resources. The five influence processes are direct decisions, allocation of resources, reward system, selection and promotion of other leaders and role modeling. Each will be discussed in detail in the following paragraphs:

Direct decisions: Direct decisions provide the leaders the ability to influence the choices of their followers. This ability to influence comes with the control leaders have in formulating mission and vision aspects of an organization. The most important aspect giving power to leader in the organizational structure is their ability to influence the variables affecting their followers through direct decisions. Leaders’ ability to make decisions influencing organizational structure give them the power to dictate decision making in the organization and set overall direction of the organization.

Allocation of resources: Leaders make use of their power over various organizational resources such as human, money and technological resources to significantly impact the way work is carried out in an organization. For example if a department is in serious need of funds a leader has the power to grant additional money to the department in addition to the portion allocated to the department in the annual budget.

Reward system: Leader can make use of their power to reward to influence the actions and behaviors of their employees. A leader can offer monetary incentive to followers in case the followers conform to certain behavioral standards and achieve goals necessary for meeting the overall organization objective.

Selection and promotion of other leaders: Leaders can also influence their followers by making use of their power to promote the leaders who meet individual as well as organizational goals and objectives.

Role modeling: Finally one of the most important ways leaders can mould the behavior and opinion of their followers is by acting as a role model. Followers always follow the path leader is taking. If a leader possesses high moral and ethical standard there are greater chances that their followers will also have high ethical and moral standards.

 

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