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Course Code: MPCE-011
Assignment Code: MPCE-011/ASST/TMA/2022-23
Marks: 100


NOTE: All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 marks
1. Discuss the causes and treatment of panic disorder.




Signs and Symptoms of Panic Disorder

The hallmark symptom of panic disorder is the persistent fear of having future panic attacks.  If you experience repeated panic attacks and are constantly worried about having another one, you may have panic disorder.

A panic attack includes at least four of the following symptoms:

  • Palpitations, pounding heartbeat, or accelerated heart rate
  • Sweating
  • Trembling or shaking
  • Feeling like you are short of breath or being smothered
  • Sensations of choking
  • Chest pain or discomfort
  • Nausea or digestive trouble
  • Feeling dizzy, unsteady, light-headed, or faint
  • Chills or heat sensations
  • Numbness or tingling sensations
  • Feelings of unreality or being detached from yourself
  • Fear of losing control or “going crazy”
  • Fear of dying


Causes and Risk Factors of Panic Disorder

The exact causes of panic disorder are unclear. But there is some evidence for the following factors:

Life Transitions Major life events, such as graduating from college, getting married, or having a first child, seem to be connected to panic disorder. The recent loss of or separation from a loved one has also been linked to panic disorder.

Genetic Predisposition If you have a family member that has panic disorder, you have an increased risk of having it yourself, particularly during stressful times in your life.

Physiological False Alarm Some experts suspect that panic disorder could also be rooted in a physiological false alarm, in which the fight-flight-freeze system turns on in the absence of danger, due to a biological malfunction. But more research needs to be done.

A Physical-Psychological Combination A person may interpret physical symptoms from other causes as the onset of a panic attack, and as a result have an actual panic attack. For example, if you have a racing heartbeat caused by drinking coffee, exercising, or taking a medication, but you think you’re having a panic attack, you may trigger an actual panic attack.

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your risk of having panic attacks or panic disorder include:

  • Major life stressors, such as when a loved one is seriously ill
  • Traumatic events such as sexual assault or a serious accident
  • Smoking or excessive caffeine intake
  • Being physically or sexually abused in childhood






2. Discuss the etiology and treatment of post traumatic stress disorder


Etiology     is the study of causation or origination. The word is derived from the Greek αἰτιολογία (aitiología) “giving a reason for” .   More completely, etiology is the study of the causes, origins, or reasons behind the way that things are, or the way they function, or it can refer to the causes themselves. The word is commonly used in medicine (pertaining to causes of disease) and in philosophy, but also in physics, biology, psychology, government, geography, spatial analysis and theology in reference to the causes or origins of various phenomena.

In the past, when many physical phenomena were not well understood or when histories were not recorded, myths often arose to provide etiologies. Thus, an etiological myth, or origin myth, is a myth that has arisen, been told over time or written to explain the origins of various social or natural phenomena. For example, Virgil’s Aeneid is a national myth written to explain and glorify the origins of the Roman Empire. In theology, many religions have creation myths explaining the origins of the world or its relationship to believers.


post-traumatic stress disorder

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health issue that can develop after a distressing event. The event may be dangerous, life-threatening, shocking or very scary. Examples include:

  • Accident.
  • Fire.
  • Military combat.
  • Natural disaster, such as a tornado.
  • Physical abuse.
  • Sexual assault or rape.
  • Sudden death of a loved one.
  • Terrorist attack.

The traumatic event may have happened to you, or you may have seen it happen to someone else.

3. Discuss the clinical features and etiology of dissociative disorders.



Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5 x 5 = 25
4. Explain the purpose and approaches to the classification of psychopathology.
5. Describe the types of delusions. Differentiate between delusions and hallucinations.
6. Explain the symptoms and clinical features of obsessive compulsive disorder.
7. Explain the symptoms of bipolar disorder.
8. Discuss the etiology of schizophrenia.
Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10 x 3 = 30 marks
9. Anxiety and defense mechanisms
10. Tick disorders
11. Hypochondriasis
12. Seasonal affective disorder
13. Stimulants and depressants
14. Paranoid personality disorder
15. Borderline personality disorder
16. Postpartum psychosis
17. Positive and negative symptoms
18. Detoxification



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